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31 Cards in this Set

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Erythrocytes
**Anucleate, biconcave

=large surface area: volume ratio --> easy gas exchange (O2 and CO2)

**Membrane contains the chloride-bicarbonate antiport important in the "physiologic chloride shift"
=allows the RBC to transport CO2 from the periphery to the lungs for elimination
Source of Energy?
GLUCOSE
=90% aerobically degraded to lactate
=10% by HMP shunt

**Survival time = 120 days
Erythrocytosis
=polycythemia
=INCREASED number of RBCs
Anisocytosis
varying sizes
Poikilocytosis
varying shapes
Reticulocyte
=immature erythrocyte
Leukocytes--Types:
1) Granulocytes
=basophils
=eosinophils
=neutrophils

2) Mononuclear Cells
=lymphocytes
=monocytes

**Responsible for defense against infections

NORMAL = 4,000 - 10,000
Basophil
**Mediates allergic reaction

=stains readily w/ BASIC stains
Histology:
**Densely basophilic granules containing:

=Heparin (anticoagulant)
=Histamine (vasodilator)
=Vasoactive amines
=Leukotrienes (LTD-4)
Basophilic Stippling is seen in??
TAIL

=Thalassemias
=Anemia of chronic disease
=Iron deficiency anemia
=Lead poisoning
Mast Cell
**Mediates allergic reactions

DEGRANULATION
=releases histamine, heparin, and eosinophil chemotactic factors

**Can bind IgE to membrane
=i.e. involved in TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS

**RESEMBLE basophils structurally/functionally but are NOT the same
What can PREVENT mast cell degranulation?
Cromolyn Sodium
=used to treat asthma
Eosinophil
BILOBATE NUCLEUS

=packed w/ large eosinophilic granules of uniform size
Functions:
1) Defends against HELMINTH and PROTOZOAN infections (=major basic protein)

2) HIGHLY phagocytic for Ag-Ab complexes

**Produces HISTAMINASE and ARYLSULFATASE
Causes of Eosinophilia:
NAACP

Neoplastic
Asthma
Allergic Processes
Collagen vascular disease
Parasites
Neutrophils
**ACUTE inflammatory response cell

40-50% of ALL WBCs

PHAGOCYTIC
Histology:
=MULTIlobed nucleus

=large, spherical azurophilic granules (called lysosomes) that contain:

1) Hydrolytic enzymes
2) Lysozyme
3) Myeloperoxidase
4) Lactoferrin
Where do we see hypersegmented neutrophils?
Vitamin B12/folate deficiency
Monocyte
**2-10% of leukocytes

=LARGE
=Kidney-shaped nucleus
=extensive "frosted glass" cytoplasm

**Will differentiate into MACROPHAGES in tissues
Macrophage
**Phagocytoses bacteria, cell debris, and scavenges damaged cells and tissues

LONG LIFE in tissues

=recall: differentiate from circulating blood monocytes
What are they activated by?
Gamma-interferon

**Can function as APC via MHCII
Lymphocyte
**ROUND, densely staining nucleus w/ a small amount of pale cytoplasm

=B lymphocytes --> antibodies
=T lymphocytes --> cellular immune response + regulate B lymphocytes and macrophages
B-Lymphocyte
**Part of the HUMORAL immune response
=arises from stem cells in the BONE MARROW
=migrates to peripheral lymphoid tissues
Where are these lymphoid tissues containing B-lymphocytes?
1) Follicles of lymph nodes
2) White pulp of the spleen
3) Unencapsulated lymphoid tissue
What happens when antigen is encountered?
**When Ag is encountered, B-cells differentiate into PLASMA cells and produce Abs

=they also have MEMORY

**Can function as APC via MHCII
Cell surface markers?
CD19
CD20
Plasma Cell
=off-center nucleus
=clockface chromatin distribution
=abundant RER and well-developed Golgi
Relationship between B cells and Plasma Cells
**B-cells differentiate into plasma cells --> produce large amounts of Ab specific to a particular antigen
T-Lymphocyte
**Mediates CELLULAR immune response
Originates?
**Originates from stem cells in the bone marrow but MATURES in the thymus:

**Differentiates into:
1) Cytotoxic T-cells
=MHCI, CD8

2) Helper T-cells
=MHCII, CD4

3) Suppressor T Cells
Dendritic Cells
**Professional APCs

=Express MHCII and Fc receptor on surface

**Main induces of the primary Ab response

**Called Langerhans cells on the skin