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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a Coomb's test?
a test used to evaluate for hemolytic anemia
What is poikilocytosis?
variation in shape of red blood cells
Name different types of microcytic anemia
- iron-deficiency anemia - thalassemia - anemia of chronic disease (such as chronic infection, inflammation, cancer, and liver disease) - sideroblastic anemia
What are causes of iron deficiency anemia?
- MCC is occult blood loss - deficient diet - decreased absorption - increased requirements - blood loss - hemoglubinuria - iron sequestration
What is ferritin?
- the storage form of iron
What are some causes of normocytic anemia?
- aplastic anemia - anemia of chronic disease - chronic renal failure - spherocytosis
What labs should you get with a microcytic anemia?
- iron level - ferritin level - total iron binding capacity (TIBC)
What is haptoglobin?
a transport protein that binds and clears hemoglobin released into plasma
What are causes of macrocytic anemia?
- Vitamin B12 deficiency - Folate deficiency - liver disease/alcoholism - drugs (Sulfonamides, anti-retroviral drugs, anti-neoplastic drug)
What are different types of RBC cell morphologies seen on a peripheral smear?
- Burr Cells - Spur Cells - Spherocyte - Stomatocyte - Schistocyte (helment-shaped fragments) - Elliptocyte - Tear Drop - Sickle Cell - Target Cell (nucleated RBC, looks like a target)
What is a Rouleaux formation?
- when RBCs stack on top of each other when seen on a peripheral smear - equivalent to an elevated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
What are the anticoagulant factors?
Protein S, Protein C, Antithrombin III, & plasminogen
Which coagulation factors are not made in the liver?
- Factor VIII is derived from platelets and vascular endothelial cells - Factor XIII
What is the function of factor VIII cofactor (von Willebrand factor) in clot formation?
provides the substrate for platelet aggregation
Hemophila A is caused by a deficiency in this factor
Factor VIII
Hemophila B is caused by a deficiency in which factor?
Factor IX
What forms the prothrombin activator that converts prothrombin to thrombin?
Calcium , factor X, factor V, and platelet phospholipids
Clinical evidence of thrombocytopenia usually occurs with this platelet count.
35000 - 50000
Where do people with hemophilia have a tendency to bleed?
joints and soft tissue (muscles)
What is fibrinolysis and what enzymes are involved?
- fibrinolysis is the process by which a blood clot dissolves - plasminogen › plasmin - plasmin digests the fibrin strands of the clot and certain clotting factors (fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII, prothrombin, factor XII)
How is pernicious anemia different from B12 deficiency?
- pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder characterized by damage to gastric parietal cells (which make intrinsic factor) - B12 deficiency is due to decreased absorption of the vitamin
Where is the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex absorbed?
terminal ileum
What are signs and symptoms are a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency?
- neurologic symptoms such as paresthesias, difficulty with balance, dementia