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35 Cards in this Set

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What is anemia?
Anemia is a clinical condition that results from an insuffcient blood supply of healthy RBC's, the volume of RBC's, and/or the quanity of hemoglobin.Transport of O2 is impaired during anemia.
What are signs and sypmtoms of anemia?
1. Mild Anemia (Hb 10-14 g/dl) are usually asyptomatic.
2.Moderate anemia (Hb 6-10g/dl) dyspnea,palpations,diaphoresis, chronic fatigue **
3.Severe anemia (Hb<6g/dl) usually w/ chronic renal failure, usually asyptomatic
Goals for client with anemia?
1. Aleviate and control cause
2.Relieve manifestations
3.Prevent complications
Nursing interventions for anemic client?
1. Supplemental iron therapy
2.Nutritional therapy
3.Surgery to repair sites of hemmoragge.
4.Splenectomy
6.Removal of toxic agents that cause aplasia.
7.Stemcell or bone marrow transplant
8.Corticosteroid or immnosuppressive therapy
What size needle is needed for blood tranfusion?
19 gauge or larger
How long is bood allowed out of monitored storage before it is no longer usable?
30 min
At the clients bedside before the tranfusion verify______?
ABO & Rh compatibility
If the client has a reaction to the blood tranfusion what should you do?
STOP THE TRANFUSION
What is iron deficiency anemia?
is a chronic, hypochromic, microcytic anemia resulting from an insuffcient supply of iron in the body.
Major risk factor for IDA?
1. Insufficient dietary intake of iron.
2.blood loss
3. impaired absorption of iron
4. excessive demands for RBC production as a result of hemolysis
What are some clinical manifestations of Iron Deficiency Anemia?
Mild cases: asymptomatic
Severe cases: Fatigue,fever,headache,dyspnea,palpations,pallor in the face,palm of hand,nail bed, and mucous membranes of the mouth and conjunctiva, inflamation of the mouth tongue and lips
Managment of IDA?
1. Diagnosis and correction of undelying cause.
2. Treatment through dieat and supplemental iron preparations
What is Thalassemia?
its an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results in inadequate normal Hb production.
What are risk factors of Thalassemia?
it is frequently found in people of mediterranean,african, and southeast asian origin.
What are clinical manifestations of Thalassemia?
Can range from mild to a symptomatic. they show clinical manifestations of mild to moderate anemia. Children have pain, FTT,frequent infections,jaundice
What is the managment of Thalassemia?
1. Provide adequate normal Hb for erthropoiesis and to alleviate the effects of iron overload
What is Megaloblastic Anemia?
a group of disorders caused by impaired DNA synthesis resulting in defective,large,RBC's. The are caused by deficiencies in vitamin b12 and folic acid.
What is Cobalamin/B12 Deficiency?
also know as pernicious anemia, it is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the abscence of intrinsic factor in gastric secretions leading to malabsortion of b12.
What are risk factor of Cobalamin/B12 Deficiency?
1. Most prevalent in USA & CA
2. typically between 40 & 70 y/o
3.Prevealent in celtic & scandanavian
4. associated with gastric atrophy
What are the clinical manifestations of Cobalamin/B12 Deficiency?
1. Low Hb, hematocrit, and RBC's
2. Dx is based on prescence of anemia,gi manifestations, and neurologic disorders
What is medical management of Vitamin b12 deficiency?
Need immediate treatment and lifelong therapy with maintenance b12
What is Folic acid Deficiency Anemia?
Anemia cause by low folic acid
What are the risk factors of Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia?
1. Diet lacking in green leafy vegetables, liver, citrus fruits, nuts,grains,and yeast
2. Alcoholism contributing factor
3. Dialysis patients be cautious
What are the clinical manifestations of Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia?
1. Slow insidious onset
2. pt presents thin emacited
3. often leads to deficiencies in other vitamins
What is the medical manegment of Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia?
1. Oral doses of folic acid 01 to 0.5 mg daily till blood profile improves
2. Parenteral folic acid may be needed
What is Hemolytic Anemia?
it is the end result of conditions that lead to hemolysis, the premature destruction of erythocytes, can result from physical damage. intrinsic membrane defects, immune destruction of RBC's by macrophages, or hyper splenism
What are the risk factors for Hemolytic anemia?
1. Can be hereditary or acquried
2. problems with intrinsic or extrinsic w/ RBC's
What are the clinical manifestations of hemolytic anemia?
1. general manifestions of anemia
What is the medical management of hemolytic anemia?
1. Removal of offending agent is key
2. Transfusion may be necessary
3. Adequate fluids to flush kidneys
4
What is Sickle Cell Disease?
it is a group of inherited disorders of mutant hemoglobin that causes the characteristic sickling of RBC's
What are the risk factors of Sickle Cell Disease?
People of african, mediterranean,middle east, and indian decent
What is Sickle Cell Crisis?
it is an acute episode exacerbation of the disorder instigated by reduced o2 levels and associated crises.
What are the clinical manifestations of sickle cell anemia?
1.Chronic hemolytic anemia
2.Painful Sickle Cell crisis
3. manifestations of the associated organ damage syndromes
What is the medical managment of Sickle cell disease?
"No cure", treatment strategies aimed at control of manifestations and manaegment of disease complication watch for 1. vasoocclusive crisis
2. acute chronic pain
3.chronic hemolytic anemia
4. acute chest sydrome
5. infections
What is the best way to alleviate sickle cell symptoms?
pain control, with opioids, hydrourea FDA approved