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56 Cards in this Set

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Define "Hematology"
study of blood and blood-forming tissues, includes blood cells, bone marrow, spleen and lymphatic tissue
What are the nutrients needed for the development of RBC?
Protein
Intrinsic Factor
Vit B-12
Vit B-2
Vit C
Vit E
Pantothenic acid
Niacin
Iron
Copper
What organ secretes erythropoietin?

Within response to what?
The kidneys secrete it in response to tissue hypoxia
Do WBC have a long or short life cycle? In what kind of time frame do they survive?
Short; few days to a few weeks
Leukemia
a consistently high number of WBC in the blood, as many as 50,000 in a single drop
How many WBC are usually in a drop of blood?
7,000-25,000
Where are 1/3 of the body's platelets stored?
Spleen
What must be present to support formation of clots?
Vit. K and Calcium
Function of lymph
collects waste and deposits into nodes as it passes through
Function of spleen
hematopoietic function in fetus
phagocyte filter
cleanses blood
immune function to blood-borne microorganisms
blood resevoir
functions of the lymphatic system
carries fluid from interstitial space to blood
prevents development of edema
lymph nodes filter bacteria
lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages proliferate in the lymph nodes (become large and tender
Red Bone Marrow is considered ________.

Yellow Bone Marrow is considered ___________.
Active


Inactive
Granulocytes
neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils
(All phagocytes)
Agranulocytes
monocytes
macrophages
lymphocytes
natural killer cells
Steps of Clotting Sequence
1. Vasoconstriction
2. Formation of platelet plug
3. Activation of coagulation cascade
4. Formation of blood clot
5. Clot retraction and clot dissolution
What is anticoagulation?
Coagulation are controlled by anti-coagulates; a balance between thrombin and plasmin in circulation create a balance btwn coagulation and lysis
Fibrinolysis
final stage of hemostasis; lysis of the blood clot
Heparin is produced at the _______ by ________ cells and ____________ that are _________ by the injury.
site
mast
basophils
activated
Signs of Aging in Hematology
RBC replenish more slowly
Hgb decreases
Serum iron and TIBC decreases
Lymphocyte function decreases
Adhesiveness of platelets affected
Anemia is deficiency in the...
Number of RBC
Quantity of hemoglobin
Volume of packed RBC (hematocrit)
Some causes of anemia
Blood loss
Impaired production of RBC
Increased destruction of RBC
Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Thalasemia Anemia
Siderblastic Anemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Causes
Indadequate intake of iron
Blood loss (includes menstration)
Pregnancy
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Most at Risk
chronic poverty individuals
women of childbearing age
children
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Diagnosis
Serum Ferritin, TIBC
Assess for GI bleed - endoscopy or colonoscopy
Iron Deficieny Anemia: Treatment and Drug Therapies
Treat underlying causes
Dietary supplements of iron, red meats, iron supplements


150-200mg of iron daily
325mg for menstrating females
Acknowledge the GI upsets with increased iron; upset stomach, indigestion, heart burn, constipation, etc.
Thalassemia: Causes
Decreased RBC production
Hemolysis
Inadequate production of hemoglobin
Thalassemia: Most at Risk
People carrying genetic disorder...
Minor: one gene
Major: two genes

People of Mediterranean Sea descent
Thalassemia: Clinical Manifestations
Similar to IDA, with minor splenomegaly and bronze coloring of the skin
Persons with thalassemia minor are usually asymptomatic
Persons with thalassemia major are usually quite ill
Thalassemia: Diagnosis and Treatments
Based on family history, clinical manifestations, and blood tests

Treatment required to support and prolonged life are necessary for thalassemia major.
Siderblasitic Anemia
Due to inefficient iron uptake resulting in dysfunctional hemoglobin synthesis; creates ringed siderblasts
Diagnosis is on bone marrow examination
Megaloblastic Anemias and its causes
Types: Vit. B-12 Deficiency
Folate Acid Deficiency

Causes: impaired DNA synthesis-producing large RBC
Vitamin B-12 Deficiency is also called ________ OR ________.
Cobalamin Deficiency or Pernicious Anemia
Vit. B-12 Anemia: what is it
Lack of intrinsic factor production needed for absorption of B12 because the autoantibodies of the gastric parietal cells inhibit them from secreting intrinsic factor
Hallmark of Vit. B-12 Anemia
beefy-red, sore tongue
Vit. B-12 Deficiency Anemia: Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosed with blood tests, bone marrow aspiration, neurologic study and gastric biopsy

Treatment: IM injection of B12 weekly and then monthly for life, (oral 5x the parental dose has been effective)
Effectiveness in treatment is manifested by a rise in reticulocyte count.
What is the outcome of untreated Cobalamin Deficiency?
Death due to heart failure
Folic Acid Deficiency: Causes
Poor nutrition (green leafy veggies)
Malabsorption
Alcohol and Drug use/abuse
Fad diets, due to decrease in vegetable intake
Associated with neural tube defects of fetus, heart disease and colorectal cancer
Folic Acid Deficiency: Clinical Manifestations
Stomatitis, painful ulcers in mouth
Cachectic, malnourished look
Difference between Folic Acid Deficiency and Cobalamin Deficiency
neurologic involvement in cobalamin def.
Folic Acid Deficiency: Treatment
folic acid replacement, 1mg/day
Alcoholics: 5mg/day
Symptoms will disappear in 1-2 wks
Dietary adjustments should be made
Types of Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Aplastic Anemia
Posthemorrhagic Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hemolytic Anemia
Anemia of chronic disease
Aplastic Anemia: Causes
Results from infiltrative disorders of bone marrow; autoimmune diseases, renal failure; splenic dysfunction; congenital
Aplastic Anemia: Clinical Manifestations (Rapid Onset)
Hypoxemia, pallor, weakness, fever, dyspnea
Aplastic Anemia: Clinical Manifestations (Slow Onset)
Progressive weakness, fatigue, advances in infection and hemorrhage when WBC & platelets are involved
Aplastic Anemia: Diagnosis & Treatment
Bone marrow biopsy & bone marrow transplant or blood transfusions
Posthemorrhagic Anemia
Acute or Chronic
may not be detected by blood test for 2-3 days
labs will show decreased Hct, elevated neutrophils and platelets
Posthemorrhagic Anemia is associated with...
acute trauma, burns, chronic GI bleeds, and ulcers
Within 24 hours of blood loss, lost plasma is replaced with ___________ & ___________, resulting in ___________ and a ____________.
water & electrolytes resulting in hemodilution & decreased HCT.
Posthemorrhagic Anemia: Treatment
TREAT BLOOD LOSS; identify source and treat to prevent shock
Posthemorrhagic Anemia: Manifestions
linked to loss of BLOOD VOLUME not loss of hemoglobin
What is indicative of Sickle Cell Disease?
Hemoglobin S - sickled hemoglobin which reacts to deoxygenation and dehydration
The Genetic Disorder that results in an abnormally shaped RBC
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia: People at risk
African Americans
Sickle Cell Anemia: Clinical Manifestation
Pain, pallor, fatigue, irritability, aching joints, jaundice, weakness, hand pain, pneumonia, priapism
Sickle Cell Crisis and Prevention
Acute onset of the sickle cell disease;
Tissue hypoxia
Chest pain, pain in back
Maybe fatal

Prevention of crisis: avoid fever, infection, dehydration, and exposure to cold