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99 Cards in this Set

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number (in millions) of erthyrocytes per microliter of blood

Detects altered erthyropoiesis, anemias, hemorrhage, Hodgkin disease, leukemia
RBC test
(red cell count)
blood test that measures the size of erythrocytes (RBCs)

Detects anemias, thalassemias
Mean corpuscle volume (MCV)
Amount of hemoglobin in each erythrocyte (by weight)

Detects anemias, hereditary spherocytosis
Mean corpuscle hemoglobin (MCH)
Amount of hemoglobin (by weight) per dl of blood

Detects anemias
Hemoglobin determination
Percentage of a given volume of blood that is occupied by erthryocytes

detects hemorrhage, polycythemia, erthyrocytosis, anemias, leukemia
Hematocrit determination
Number of reticulocytes per microliter of blood (also expressed as the percentage of reticulocytes in total red blood cell count)

detects hyperactive or hypoactive bone marrow function
Reticulocyte count
Blood test that detects the presence of hemoglobin S in erthyrocytes
Sickle cell test
Blood test that measures the depletion of body iron (potential deficiency of heme synthesis)
Serum ferritin determination
Blood test that measures the number of circulating platelets (in thousands) per microliter of blood
Platelet count
Blood test that measures the duration of bleeding following a standardized superficial puncture wound of the skin, integrity of the platelet plug, measured in minutes following puncture
Bleeding time
Blood test that measures the effectiveness of clotting factors (except factors VII and VIII); measures the effectiveness of intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade, as measured by a test tube (in seconds)
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
Blood test that measures the activity of prothrombin, fibrinogen, and factors V, VII, and X; measures the effectiveness of vitamins K-dependent coagulation factors of the extrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade as measured in a test tube (in seconds)
Prothrombin time (PT)
Blood test that measures the quantity and activity of fibrinogen as measured in a test tube (in seconds)
Thrombin time
Why are red blood cells red?
hemoglobin
What happens as blood passes through the lungs?
It picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide.
What happens as blood passes through the body tissues?
It picks up carbon dioxide and drops off oxygen.
the study of blood and blood-forming tissues

includes blood cells, bone marrow, spleen, and lymphatic system
hematology
The body responds to reduced oxygen in what 2 ways?
1. increased respirations
2. increased erythropoiesis
What is another name for bone marrow?
myeloid tissue
consists of blood vessels, nerves, phagocytes, stem cells, blood cells, and fatty tissue

can be red (active) or yellow (inactive)
bone marrow
What are some of the functions of the spleen?
- site of fetal hematopoiesis
- filters/cleanses the blood
- serves as a blood reservoir
- immune function
- not necessary for life
What is the largest of the secondary lymphoids organs?
the spleen
__________ & ______________ must be present in the blood to support the formation of clots.
calcium
vitamin K
the stoppage of bleeding
hemostasis
Once activated, the processes of coagulation are controlled by ________________.
anti-coagulants
_____________ is the final stage of hemostasis.
Fibrinolysis
A balance between ____________ and ______________ maintain normal coagulation and lysis.
thrombin
plasmin
What are the effects of aging on the hematologic system?
- RBCs are replenished more slowly after bleeding

- hemoglobin decreases

- serum iron and total iron binding capacity decreases

- lymphocyte function decreases

- platelet # and structure are not affected; however, adhesiveness probably increases
produced at the site of injury by mast cells and basophils

halts the coagulation cascade and enhances thrombin absorption by fibrin in the clot
heparin
a deficiency in the number of RBCs, quantity of hemoglobin, or volume of packed RBCs (hematocrit)
anemia
What are some causes of anemia?
blood loss
impaired production of erythrocytes
increased destruction of erthyrocytes
What are the clinical manifestations of anemia?
- Response to hypoxia: dyspnea, rate/depth of breathing increases, palpitations, diaphoresis
- fatigue (even @ rest), dizziness, muscle pain b/c of decreased blood supply to cardiac/skeletal muscles
- pallor (pale lips, nail beds, and conjuctivae
- jaundice
- impaired healing/loss of elasticity
- increased cardiac output
- CHF
- edema
- paresthesias
- abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia
- Low grade fever possible (b/c of pyrogens released by ischemic tissues)
-cytic
cellular size
-chromic
hemoglobin content
an abnormally large RBC is ________________
macrocytic
an abnormally small RBC is _________________
microcytic
An RBC containing an usually high concentration of hemoglobin is _______________.
hyperchromic
An RBC containing an abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin is _______________.
hypochromic
RBCs of normal size are termed _______________.
normocytic
RBCS with normal amounts of hemoglobin are termed ________________.
normochromic
disease that causes an excessively large number of RBCs in the blood/ typically accompanied by increased circulating platelets and granulocytes

is a physiologic response to hypoxia
polycythemia vera
clinical manifestations of polycythemia:
hypertension
hypovolemia
headache
dizziness
visual problems
chest pain
CHF
thrombophlebitis
CVA (stroke)
hepatomegaly
splenomegaly
extremely painful itching
How is polycythemia diagnosed?
increased Hgb
increased Hct
increased RBCs
increased WBCs
increased platelets
splenomegaly
How is polycythemia treated?
- phlebotomy (draw blood out) to decreased blood volume
- 300-500 cc is removed 2-3x a week
- radioactive phosphorus (suppresses erythropoiesis)
What are the side effects of treatment for polycythemia?
anemia
leukopenia
thrombocytopenia
acute leukemia
neoplasm of secondary lymphoid tissue involving lymph nodes and/or spleen
lymphoma
the two types of lymphomas
Hodgkin
Non-Hodgkin
Bone marrow involvement occurs more often in which type of lymphoma?
non-Hodgkin
Reed-Sternberg cells are found in which type of lymphoma?
Hodgkin
Extranodal involvement is more common in which type of lymphoma?
non-Hodgkin
Which type of lymphoma involves a single node or chain?

Which type of lymphoma involves multiple nodes?
Hodgkin

non-Hodgkin
exists when the platelet count is below 100,000 platelets per cubic mm of blood
thrombocytopenia
What can occur with platelet counts of 50,000 or less?
hemorrhage from minor trauma
What can occur with platelet counts between 15,000 and 10,000?
spontaneous bleeding
What can occur with platelet counts below 10,000?
severe bleeding
a chronic condition more prevalent in females

an autoimmune disorder in which an IgG autoantibody is formed that binds to and destroys the platelets
immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
What are some symptoms of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)?
petechiae (small purplish hemorrhagic spots on the skin)

purpura (hemorrhage into the skin)

major hemorrhage
condition in which platelets aggregate and occlude the microcirculation

platelet aggregation occurs without activation of the coagulation cascade and is related to hemolytic syndromes and low platelet syndromes
thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)
What are some symptoms of thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?
thrombocytopenia
neurologic abnormalities
fever
renal problems

**This is an emergency because bleeding and clotting occur at the same time!
What is the most common cause of drug-induced thrombocytopenia?
heparin

(decreased platelet count appears 5-10 days after heparin administration)
an acquired clinical syndrome in which the manifestations are the result of abnormal clotting that causes a serious bleeding disorder--thrombosis (clot formation) and hemorrhage
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
What are some causes of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?
bacterial endotoxins (sepsis)= most common cause
other infections
hypoxia
low blood flow
blood transfusions
What are the symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?
bleeding from insertion sites
pallor
petechiae
oozing blood
hemoptysis
tachycardia
hypotension
bloody stools
hematuria
changes in mental status
pulmonary emboli
cyanosis of fingers and toes
What is the most reliable and specific test used to diagnose DIC?
D-Dimer

Low antithrombin III level also used (it is reduced by 90% in patients with DIC)
What are the 3 types of microcytic-hypochronic anemia?
Iron-deficiency anemia
Thalassemia
Sideroblastic anemia
What are the 2 types of macrocytic-normochromic anemia?
Pernicious (Vit B12 deficiency) anemia

Folic Acid deficiency anemia
What are the 5 types of normocytic-normochromic anemia?
Aplastic anemia
Posthemorrhagic anemia
Sickle cell anemia
Hemolytic anemia
Anemia of chronic disease
What are 2 common causes of iron deficiency anemia?
pregnancy
blood loss
Name some symptoms of iron deficiency anemia.
fatigue
weakness
shortness of breath
pale skin
gastritis
neuromuscular changes
irritability
headache
numbness
tingling
inherited autosomal recessive disorder that causes an impaired rate of synthesis of one of the 2 chains (alpha or beta) of adult hemoglobin
thalassemia
Which type of anemia is most prevalent in Mediterranean populations?
thalassemia
In which type of anemia do the symptoms depend on the number of genes involved?

(If one gene is involved, it is considered minor and person is usually asymptomatic.

If 2 genes are involved, it is considered major and person can become quite ill).
thalassemia
Which type of anemia has symptoms similar to IDA with mild splenomegaly and bronze coloring of the skin?
thalassemia
Which type of anemia is caused by insufficent iron uptake, resulting in abnormal hemoglobin synthesis?
sideroblastic anemia
red cells that contain iron granules that have not been synthesized into hemoglobin
ringed sideroblasts
This type of anemia can be inherited or acquired, but the inherited type is only found in males (x-linked recessive trait).
sideroblastic anemia
What are some symptoms of sideroblastic anemia?
hepatomegaly
splenomegaly
bronze colored skin
Which type of anemia is characterized by the presence of ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow?
sideroblastic anemia
Which type of anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor production needed for the absorption of Vitamin B12?
pernicious anemia
(cobalamin deficiency)
Name some symptoms of pernicious anemia.
a beefy red and sore tongue**
infections
anorexia
N/V
abdominal pain
paresthesias
muscle weakness
mood swings
personality defects
memory loss
yellow skin
enlarged liver
enlarged spleen
What is an essential vitamin required for RNA and DNA synthesis within the RBC?
folate
Name some causes of folate deficiency anemia.
malabsorption
drugs
alcohol
poor nutrition
What are some symptoms of folate deficiency anemia?
stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth)
malnourished appearance (cachectic)
What is the difference between folate deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia?
In folate deficiency anemia, there is no neurological involvement.
What are two other names for aplastic anemia?
hypoplastic anemia
pancytopenic anemia
What are the two types of aplastic/pancytopenic anemia?
rapid onset
slow onset
What are the symptoms of rapid onset aplastic/pancytopenic anemia?
hypoxemia
pallor
weakness
fever
dyspnea
What are the symptoms of slow onset aplastic/pancytopenic anemia?
progressive weakness
fatigue
infection/hemorrhage when WBCs and platelets become affected
Which type of anemia is caused by sudden blood loss with normal iron stores?
posthemorrhagic anemia
In which type of anemia are the symptoms related to loss of blood volume rather than loss of hemoglobin?
posthemorrhagic anemia
What are some symptoms of posthemorrhagic anemia?
severe shock
lactic acidosis
death
a group of disorders characterized by the production of abnormal hemoglobin S with RBCs

Hemoglobin S reacts to deoxygenation and dehydration by solidifying and stretching the RBC, producing hemolytic anemia
sickle cell disease
What are some things that can trigger sickle cell disease?
infection
emotional stress
surgery
blood loss
dehydration
N/V
diarrhea
low temperatures
What are some symptoms of sickle cell disease?
pain
pallor
fatigue
weakness
jaundice
irritability
aching joints
hand pain
pneumonia
priapism
condition caused by extensive sickling, which is where sickle cells block blood flow and cause tissue death

causes pain in the chest, back, and extremities
sickle cell crisis
In this type of anemia, RBCs become rigid, slowing their passage and making them vulnerable to phagocytosis
hemolytic anemia
What are some symptoms of hemolytic anemia?
splenomegaly
jaundice
cardiovascular problems
respiratory problems
Which type of anemia is associated with AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure, and malignancies?
anemia of chronic inflammation
In which anemia are the symptoms fewer and milder than other anemias?
anemia of chronic inflammation