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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a Theory?
A model used to explain experiences for purpose of predicting future events/ solutions. (increases understanding & synthesises body of knowledge)
Counseling Theory?
framework for understanding & predicting human behavior, and set of concepts to explain concerns, actions, percpetions, and motivations of humans.
Theories of Personality?
Th. meant to answer specific questions. ex. why do humans behave the way they do?, When does human behavior develop.
Counseling Theory used for?
Guideline to explain how humans learn, change, and develop. Attempts to explain how to deal w/ issues, & a plan of action.
Outcome Research?
term applied to the investigation of the impact of counseling on clients (did client improve/not improve?)
What has outcome research found or what does it suggest?
Eysenck(1966): no client improvement on ave. Truax&Carkhuff(1967): empathy, warmth, & genuineness helped clients make positive changes.
Adn'l outcome research findings?
Insight oriented Psychotherapy is most successful with middle and upper middle class or Y.A.V.I.S (young attractive, verbal, intelligent & successful).
Adn'l outcome research findings?
Nugent (1994) clients who had therapy were better off than those who did not. Also not everyone improves nor are all therapies equal or one better than another.
Evaluating outcome literature:
Corey (1986) sggests caution against drawing hasty conclusions. The question of effectiveness cannot be approached globally but rather specifically (due to unique personality of client).
What are recovery variables related to?
Client, Common Factors (i.e. empathy, warmth), Interventions used.
Attributes of Effective Counselors include? (Note not proven in research)
Interpersonal skills, concreteness, congruency, empathy, positive regard, immediacy, and respect; self-awareness, open-mindedness, flexibility, objectivity, trustworthyness, persnal integrity.
Is there one "best" theoretical approach?
No, Sexton 1999 provided research support that indeed there is not best th. approach, rather "common factors" drive effective counseling.
Name the "common factors" that can lead to effective counseling as identified by Sexton & Whiston 1994.
Collaborative counseling relationship, learning, and action (successful experiences).
Name some counselor variables that affect best practices of counseling
Skillfulness (competence), cognitive complexity (thinking diversly), and an ability to relate (match w/client). Also ability to assess the problem.
Grencavage & Norcross 1990 isolated 89 common factors. The 2 most common were?
Client expectations and a facilitative therapeutic relationship.
Norcross also found that meeting/matching the client's ______ & ______ are more likely to achieve effective outcomes.
Needs and Characteristics
The severity of the client's subjective distress and reduced functioning is?
The clients level of IMPAIRMENT.
Name the 5 stages of change
Precontemplative, contemlplative, preparation, action and maintenance.
The wellness or positive wellness concept includes:
health-related activities that are preventative and remedial (Gladding 1996)
Name Witmer and Sweeney's 5 life tasks that have 11 dimensions of a healthy person:
Spirituality, self-regulation, work, friendship and love.
This Psychologist was one of the first Americans interested in the problem of high-level human functioning
Abraham Maslow
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which classifies human needs into a series of increasingly "higher level motivation", are?
physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
Carl Rogers conceptualized the "fully functioning person" as the fully successful client in client-centered therapy. Name 3 characteristics of this hypothetical personality?
Openness (to his/her experience), Living in an existential way, and Trust (trusting him/her in the th. relationship).
What is skills training?
A method to address the needs of populations often not being met by traditional therpies.