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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Do helminths multiply in hosts? Exception?

Morbidity of helminths is proportional to?
Worm burden
Symptoms of Ascariasis Lumbricoides?

Major problem?

Common cold sym, inflammation, pulmonary eosinophilia & Loeffler's syn

Common parasite in US daycares?

Infection strategy? Symptoms?

Diagnostic test
Enterobius Vermicularis ( hook!)

PERIANAL ITCHING & spread (seldom granuloma formation)

Scotch tape test
What worm can cause Rectal Prolapse?

Diagnostic test?
Trichuris trichura (whipworms...have HOOK)

also cuase peri-anal irritation

Scotch tape test too! (like enterobius vermicularis)
Which worms form Rabdiform larva instead of eggs? consequence?

Necator & Ancylostoma (Hookworm)

Can penetrate skin DIRECTLY (no need for egg digestion)

Heavy infections cause eosinophilia, anti-coagulation induction & ANEMIA
What are the only worms to Autoinfect hosts?

Infection similar what other worms?



Can infect skin directly with rabidoform larva (like Necator & Ancylosoma (HOOKWORMS))

Epigastric pain, non-specific diarrhea, G- septicemia, infection of lungs resembles asthma/allergies

Trichinella spirilis Mech of infection?

Encyst in the tisues of pig -> eaten by humans -> invade human tissue

Periorbital edema, muscle pain & weakness
Main problem with anti-helminth drugs?
Most drugs do not effect the IMMATURE (LARVAL) stages of parasite life-cycle, thus RE-INFECTION is a problem even is chemotherapy is effective
Filarial Infections caused by? Symptoms? Mech of Infection (cool feature)?

Diagnostic Test?
Wuchereria bancrofti & Brugia malayi

Elaphantitis, Tropical fever (hydrocele, lymphedema etc) & sometimes visual loss

invovles INSECT VECTOR (not oral fecal)...can only DRAW BLOOD from infected person AT NIGHT (during day there will be no parasites)

anti-filarial antibody DIPSTICK CARD TEST (can even use on field)
Onchocercia Volvulus symptoms? Diagnosis?
1)Corneal opacification -> blindness (African River Blindness)

2)Significant SKIN pathology (collagenic capsules over bony parts of body (called "NODULES")

NODULES are the only place you can get diagnosis/research material

Pathology is associated with the host's immune response NOT parasite itself

Infection leads to MORBIDITY (economic disruption) but not MORTALITY

Trematode cause pathology where/which species?

Pathology result of what?

Carried by what host?
S. Mansoni & Japonicum = LIVER
S. Hematobium = BLADDER

Pathology associated with immune reaction to eggs

What cuases "Swiss-cheese brain"
Cysticersosis from Pork tap-worm (Cestode)
Single huge cyst in brain from? Intermediate host?

4 Species causing malaria
1) P. falciparum - most deaths

2) P. vivax - most common; benign malaria

3) P. ovale

4) P. malariae - 72 hour life cycle; can also cause RECRUDESENCE up to 20 years later
Reasons why Malaria is still around and getting worse (5)?

2) People moving

3) Insecticdide resistance

4) Climate change

5) No Pharm company interest - No money in curing malaria
Most species of Plasmodium have __ life cycle? Exception 1? 24hr excpetion?
48 hours

P. malarariea = 72 hours

Monkey parasites = 24 hours
Moratliy complications of malaria?
1) Severe anemia

2) Renal failure

3) Respiratory distress (v RBC = v O2 = respiratory distress)

4) Cerebral Malaria/Coma (only by P FALCIPARUM)
Only Plasmodium species to cause Cerebral Malaria/Coma?

Detected in blood smear?
P. Falciparum

NOOOOO!!! You will never see P. falciparum in a blood smear because they are NOT CIRCULATING, but rather STUCK ONTO WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS
Who does malaria many kill?
1) Children UNDER FIVE in endemic contries

2) Travelers (doesnt matter how old you are)
Malarial immunity is?
1) Transient (can lose after awhile)


"immune" people still have parasites in bloodstream, just no complications
When do immune women become susceptible to malaria again?
during FIRST PREGNANCY (PLACENTAL MALARIA; major cuse of low-birth weight babies, spontaneous abortions, and stillbirths)
Gold standard for diagnosis of Malaria?
mea and GIEMSA stain
Problem with malarial meds?
HAVE TO TAKE EVERYDAY - low complience
Anopheles mosquito bite only?
Oldest and best malarial treatment?

Use when, why?

Saved for LAST b/c if we get resistance to it, we are in trouble
Traveling to C. America & Middle East use...

Traveling to anywhere else use...

Doxycycline or Mefloquine