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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Heat transfer by direct contact, examples include hot and cold packs
Heat transfer by circulation of a medium of a different temperature, examples include fluidotherapy, whirlpool, and blood circulation
Changing one type of energy to another, examples include ultrasound and diathermy
Exchange of energy directly w/o an intervening medium, example: infrared
Absorption of energy as the result of conversion of a material from a liquid to a vapor state
What 4 factors determine the rate of heat transfer during conduction?
Temperature difference between the materials, their thermal conductivity, the area of contact and the thickness of the tissue
Name the 3 effects associated with Cyrotherapy
Hemodynamic, Neuromuscular, and Metabolic
Name the 4 effects associated with Thermotherapy
Hemodynamic, Neuromuscular, Altered tissue extensibility and Metabolic
What modality is assoiciated with decreasing sympathetic adrenergic activiation which in turn causes vasodiliation?
Smooth muscle contraction causes what effect?
What is Hunting's response?
Alternating vasocontriction and vasodiliation that occurs with cyrotherapy.
Name the mechansims that cause vasoconstriction.
Activation of cutaneous cold receptors, decrease production of and release of histamine and prostaglandins, activiation of the sympathetic adrenergic neurons and increasing blood viscosity.
What are the advantages of using an ice massage compared to a cold pack?
Visualization of the treating area during application, can be used on small and irregular areas, short duration, inexpensive, can be applied to an elavated limb
What are the advantages of using infrared instead of a hot pack?
Reduces the risk of infection since infrared does not require a medium. Visualization of the treating area during application. May be better for those patients who can't tolerate the weight of a hotpack on the treatment area.
What are the contraindications of ice?
Cold hypersensitivity, Cold intolerance, Cyroglobulinemia, Paroxysmal cold cryoglobinuria, Raynard's disease, Over a regenerating perpherial nerve, circulatory compromise of PVD
What are the contraindications of heat?
Recent hemorrhage, Thrombophlebitis, impaired sensation and mentation, Malignancy, Infrared over the eyes
How does cold decrease pain?
Closes the gate, blocks the conduction of of A-delta fibers, interrupts the pain-spsam-pain cycle
How does heat decrease pain?
Closes the gate by activation of cutaneous thermoreceptors, improved healing, decreased muscle spasm or reduced ischemia
How is it that paraffin wax applied at 40 degrees C doesn't burn the patient?
Paraffin has a low specific heat due to the oil that the paraffin is mixed with.
How does cold increase the pain threshold?
Closes the gate, reduction of muscle spasms, sensory nerve conduction velocity and minimizing postinjury edema which decreases the pressure on nerves and other pressure-sensative structures.
What is the optimal time to apply cold for decreasing inflammation?
10-15 minutes waiting 1 hour before re-application
What is the therapeutic range of temperatures to achieve soft tissue extensibility?
40-50 degrees C, 104-113 degrees F for 10 minutes
What is the optimal temperature for hemoglobin to release oxygen?
41 degrees C (106 degrees F)
How does heat effect muscle strength?
Decreases during the intial 30 minutes since alpha motor neuron firing decreases.
How does heat effect muscle strength?
Short duration (less than 5 minutes) causes an increase, prolonged >30 minutes causes a decrease then a gradual increase for up to 3 hours
What are the proposed mechanisms that describe how prolonged cold decreases muscle strength?
Reduction of blood flow to the muscles, increased muscle viscosity, and increased soft tissue stiffness
How long should coldpacks be cooled between uses?
30 minutes
What is the normal sequence of sensations a patient should feel with the application of ice?
Intense cold, burning, aching, analgesia, nunbness
True or False: superficial heating modalities can heat muscle tissue.
False, as the name applies, they do not heat to the depth of most muscles.
True or False, accessing muscle strength should be performed prior to the application of heat.
True, strength and endurance have been found to decrease during the initial 30 minutes after the application of deep or superficial heating agents.
What is the difference between edema (swelling) caused by poor circulation and inflammation?
Edema caused by poor circulation will cause the area to be pale and cool. Edema caused by inflammation will be warm and red.
A PTA asks a patient if they get blood in their urine after being cold. What contraindication is the PTA checking for?
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
Name three nerves that are superficial.
Peroneal nerve as it wines around the fibular head, Ulnar nerve near the medial epicondyle of the humerus and posterior tibial nerve near the medial malleolus
How many layers of toweling should be used when applying a hotpack?
6-8 layers
What disease commonly impairs sensation in the distal extremities?
Name the 4 indications for using thermotherapy.
Pain, increased ROM and decreasing joint stiffnes, acclerated healing and psoriasis (infrared radiation)