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50 Cards in this Set

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allows direct visualization of heart, through DX and repair of valves, removal of thrombosis
open commissurotomy
valve replacement that lasts 7-10 years
xenograph (pig)
valve that comes from a cadaver
homograft
assessment finds a vibration over the base you can palpate
aortic stenosis
true open heart surgery-you are replacing a valve
open commissurotomy
valve that comes from a pig-pt. who cannot be on anit-coag. tx will get this
xenograft
defects with increased pulm. blood flow
ASD, VSD, AVC, PDA
VSD, PS, overriding aorta, right vent. hypertrophy
classic form of TOF
? heart prob. do you find weak irregular pulse, diastolic murmur at apex, and atrial dysrhythmias from hypertrophy
mitral stenosis
systolic murmur, may have irregular pulse r/t A fib
mitral regurg.
prevents blood movement from LA to LV
mitral stenosis
innitially asymptomatic, forceful heartbeat, may be palpable, DOE, fatigue, LHF sx
aortic regurgitation
blood forced from LV to LA with each beat. LA hypertrophy and dialation
mitral regurg
shortening or tearing of leaflet. backflow into lungs
mitral regurg
DOE is first symptom, then pulm. edema nad infections
mitral stenosis
during diastole, blood regurgitates from aorta to LV, LV dialation to accomodate ^ volume
aortic regurg.
diastolic murmur at 3 or4th intercost., widened pulse pressure, marked temporal or carotid pulse "water hammer"pulse
aortic regurgitation
DOE-1st, dizziness, syncope, angina, d/c coronary artery bloodflow, d/c pulse pressure
aortic stenosis
crecendo-decresendo murmur, systolic murmur
aortic stenosis
what should a person with valve disorder do daily?
weights
durable valve used in younger pt. prone to emboli..requires coumadin
mechanical valve
narrows valve diameter, used for regurgitation
annuloplasty
leaflets are sutured to a ring to d/c diameter
annuloplasty ring
less likely to cause thromboemboli, less durable
tissue valve replacement
RV muscle replaced by scar and adipose tissue, may affect entire heart.
arrythmogenic RV
most common cardiomyopathy
dialated
tachypnea and tachycardia at rest, dydpnea, activity intolerance, retractions, weight gain, hepatomegaly, failure to trive are sx of?
CHF
most common CHD
VSD
opening at the lower end of the septum (mitral valve anomalies)
(a chd)
ASD1
opening near the septum
ASD2
opening near the junction of superior vena cava and RA
sinus venous defect
incomplete fusion of endocardial cushions
ACD
blood flows from higher pressure aorta to the lower pressure pulmonary artery causing a L to R shunt
PDA
characteristic machinery like murmur and widened pulse pressure
PDA
high blood pressure in upper extremities and bounding pulses, weak or absent femoral pulses, cool LE
COA
malformed cusps resulting in a bicuspid rather than tricuspid valve or fusion of cusps
valvular aortic stenosis
most common
hemodynamic condition deteriorates rapidly and admitted into ICU near death
COA
IV sodium nitroprusside, then oral catopril, hydralyzine, and /or propanolol
Port-op meds for COA repair
? of surgury is performed to fix COA
Thoracotomy..not bypass!!
stricture caused by a fibrous ring below a normal valve
subvalvular AS
mild cyanosis that progresses over the first year of life as the pulmonic stenosis worsens. acute episodes of cyanosis and hypoxia
TOF
cyanotic NB, older//mild cyanosis or CHF, cardiomegely on X-ray
PS
the presence of a patent foramen ovale in necessary until surgury.
What med is given?
Tricuspid atresia
prostaglandin E
pulmonary artery leaves the left ventricle and the aorta exits from the right vent. with no communication b/t the systemic and pulm. circulating systems
TGA/TGV
medication tx for PDA
indomethican (prostiglandin inhibitor)
serious progressive disease
episodes of myocardial ischimia can result in sudden death
Aortic stenosis
associated defects such as septal defects or PDA must be present to permit blood to enter systemic circulation/pulm. to allow mixing
TGA/v
NB = cyanosis, tachycardia, dysnpea
older = clubbing, chrinic hypoxemia
Tricuspid atresia
failure to develop a pulmonary artery and an aorta, resulting in a single vessle that overrides both ventricles
Truncus art.
chromosomal/genitic, toxoplasmisis, Rubella, maternal drug use, CMV, IDM
Causes of CHD