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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 layers of the heart?
ENdocardium
MYocardium
EPicardium
This loose sac covers the heart...
Pericardium
What are the functions of the Pericardium?
-prevents overfilling with blood.
-contatins pericardial fluid
What valves are located between the atria and ventricles?
tricuspid and bicuspid
These valves are in the pulmonary trunk and base of aorta?
pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves
atria & ventricles at rest
Diastole
atria contract blood into ventricles
Atrial systole
venticles contract blood into pulmonary trunk and aorta
Ventricular systole
heart attacks are commonly caused by blockage of what arteries?
coronary
Impulse to beat originates in the heart muscle itself
Myogenic heart
-group of specialized muscle cells
-initiate and distribute electrical impulses throughout heart
- stimulate contraction
cardiac conduction system
In wall of right atrium.
-contains pacemaker cells
sinoatrial node
AV bundle between ventricles
atrioventricular node
-in walls of both ventricles
-impulse stimulates ventricles to contract simultaneously
Purkinje fibers
recording of impulses through the heart
electrocardiogram
changes in wave patterns from the ECG indicate what?
heart damage
The cardiac center is found where?
the medulla oblongata of brain
The medulla oblongata forms impulses sent in 2 nerves to.....? The 2 nerves are called ____ and _____ they are both antagonistic
ginoatrial node
accelerator and vagus nerves
abnormal heart sound due to turbulence of blood
murmur
very rapid uncoordinated contractions of the heart
fibrillation
fibrillation is treated by.....
cardioversion
Death of the myocardium due to decreased blood flow to heart muscle can cause what?
heart attack
progressive degeneraton of the mycocardium
cardiomyopathy
chestpain
-occurs when work load on heart exceeds blood supply by coronary arteries
-myocardium not recieving enough O2
angina
What are the cause of a heart attack?
Blockage of coronary arteries resulting in mycocardial infarction. High blood pressure. disease or trama to heart.
What are the results from a heart attack?
1. decreased cardiac
2. death of body cells
3. edema
4. fibrillation
What kinda of drugs are these streptokinase, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator.
Clot-busting
How many miles of vessels do humans have?
60,000
Vertebrates have a ______ circulatory system
closed
lead away from the heart. Oxygenated blood
arteries
smaller, endothelium and smooth muscle

-further reduce blood pressure
arterioles
-at the end of arterioles
-can open and close to divert blood to where it is most needed
capillary sphincters
extensive group of small, thin blood vessels allow a single row rbc's to pass
capillaries
collect blood from capillary beds
venules
-large thin walled vessels
- return blood to heart
-similar construction to arteries
-generally carry blood high in CO2
veins
_____due to blood pressure from heart contraction-force plasma out of capillary.
hydrostatic pressure
_____caused by albumins that remain in blood within capillary forces plasma back into the capillary
osmotic pressure
excess plasma with wastes is picked up by a lymphatic vessel called......
lymph
filter out foreign materials from lymph.
lymph nodes
blood pressure is greatest in the .....
arteries
blood pressure is measured with a......
sphygmomanometer
top reading.
higest pressure at ventricular systole
systoic pressure
low pressure at diastole. bottom reading
diastolic pressure
otimum serum cholesterol level for a middle-aged person is less than ____ mg/dl of blood
200
LDL is considered _____ cholesterol
bad
HDL is considered ____cholesteol
good
high blood pressure blood pressure is consistenly above normal
hypertension
accumulation of excessive plasma in tissue spaces
edema
damage to brain tissue to to lack of blood
stroke
stroke is the ____leading cause of death
3rd
bulging of atery due to weaking of vessel wall
aneurysm