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### 70 Cards in this Set

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 Occurs when the air particles are pushed together. Compression This condition increases the resting air pressure. The property of a body or medium that enables it to return to its original shape after it has been deformed. Elasticity It may be considered a restoring force; the greater it is, the more resistant the body or medium to deformation. The number of complete cycles that a periodically vibrating source passes through in a one-second time period. Frequency Expressed in Hertz. Pure tone components of a complex tone that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. Harmonics A complex sound wave that consists of a fundamental frequency together with other pure tone components at integral multiples of the fundamental. Harmonic Series The unit of measurement for frequency. It is synonymous with the formerly used expression cycles per second. (cps) Hertz Named in honor of an important German physicist, Heinrich _______. The ability of a body to continue doing what it has been doing. Inertia If a body is at rest, it will tend to remain at rest; if a body is in motion, it will tend to remain in motion. The amount of acoustic energy that passes through a unit of area in a given time span. Intensity May be measured in units of power or pressure directly, but more frequently, it is measured in DECIBELS, which are logarithmic ratios. Any undesired sound. Noise The time it takes to compleate one cycle of vibration. Period Defined as 1/f, where f is the frequency of vibration. A sound with a definite tonal quality. Pure Tone _______ ________ is used in hearing tests. Occurs when air particles are separated. Rarefaction This condition results in a decrease in the resting air pressure. It consists of a continuous spectrum across the auditory range. White Noise All frequencies occurring at once. A graphic representation of a signal. Sine Wave Process of friction causing sound vibrations to eventually stop sound. Damping Logarithmic scale used to measure sound. Decibel Scale dB Unit value used to measure sound Dyne SPL=.0002____/cm2 .0002dynes/cm2 Sound Pressure Level is reference to... SPL In medicine, associated with the closure of a normal opening. Atresia Associated with a closed external auditory meatus. A cyst which typically grows from the upper portion of the tympanic membrane. Cholesteatoma Occurs when infection persists in the middle ear cavity for a prolonged time period. Chronic Otitis Media The ear will often discharge pus, which has a foul odor. Occurs when changes in the skin that lines the external auditory meatus permit growth of bacteria or fungi. External Otitis Swimmer's Ear A common cause of conductive hearing loss due to the blocking of the ear canal with cerumen. Impacted Cerumen A surgical operation that aims to remove diseased mastoid air cells. Mastoidectomy An inflammation of the mastoid air cells. Mastoiditis Tendonitis: inflammation of the tendons, etc. Occurs when the fluid present within the tympanic cavity is thickened, but not infected. Mucous Otitis Media Serous Otitis Media An operation designed to repair a perforation of the tympanic membrane. Myringoplasty A surgical incision of the eardrum to drain fluid or pus. Myringotomy Occurs whenever the ossicular chain is interrupted. Ossicular Discontinuity A condition in which conductive hearing loss occurs, usually through a gradual fixation of the stapes in the oval window. Otosclerosis A surgical procedure to improve hearing in cases of otosclerosis. Stapedectomy The immobile stapes is first removed and is then replaced by a prosthesis. A surgical procedure that aims to reconstruct the middle ear's conductive function. Tympanoplasty A nerve that carries nerve impulses from a sensory organ to the central nervous system. Afferent nerve Long extensions of nerve cells which carry information away from the cell body. Axons A nerve that carries nervous impulses from the central nervous system to the periphery. Efferent Nerve A small opening, located at the apical end of the cochlea, that allows communication between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. Helicotrema The system of interconnecting canals and cavities within the temporal bone that makes up the inner ear. Labyrinth consists of the cochlea, semicircular canals, and the vestibule. The lowest part of the brainstem, extending from the pons to the spinal cord. Medulla Oblangata The actual sense organ of hearing. Organ of Corti ______ of _______ It is closed by the stapes footplate and the annular ligament. It terminates the scala vestibuli at its basal end. Oval Window A small, oval shaped opening... Its membrane serves as the termination of the scala tympani at its basal end. Round Window A small, round opening. A membranous sac located within the vestibule. Saccule It communicates through the ductus reuniens, with the scala media. The lowermost channel in the cochlea. Scala Tympani Caused by noise exposure, disease, head trauma, presbycusis, and ototoxic drugs. Acquired Hearing Loss Acquired after birth. The absence of oxygen. Anoxia Inflammation of the inner ear. It is associated with vertigo and hearing loss. Labyrinthitis Inflammation of the inner ear, or labyrinth. An inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain, or spinal cord. Meningitis A hearing loss in which the auditory dysfunction is located along the path of the auditory nerve. Retrocochlear Hearing Loss German measles; sometimes causes congenital hearing loss. Rubella A temporary reduction in hearing sensitivity following exposure to intense noise. Temporary Threshhold Shift Conducts nerve impulses toward the brain. Afferent Pathway Ascending Tract The inability to recognize auditory stimuli, even though sensitivity may fall within normal limits. Auditory Agnosia A nerve that crosses over from one side of the brainstem or brain to the other. Decussate Conducts nerve impulses away from the brain to the periphery. Efferent Pathway Descending Tract An intricate relay station through which nerve impulses pass on their way to and from the cortex. Thalamus The threshhold of audibility. Absolute Threshhold Sound first enters the external ear canal, passes across the middle ear as vibration, and then travels to the inner ear. Air Conduction The normal route of hearing A graph that shows hearing loss (in dB) as a function of stimulus frequency. Audiogram The method by which hearing sensitivity is measured. Audiometry Pure tones and speech are the most typical signals used in _________. Refers to hearing with two ears. Binaural Hearing Occurs when sound passes to the inner ear through the cranial bones. Bone Conduction The difference (in dB) between the subject's threshhold for that sound and the corresponding normal threshold. Hearing Level Audiometric Zero Refers to hearing with one ear only. Monaural Hearing The range of sensitivity found whena group of otologically normal individuals is tested. Normal Hearing An interval between two frequencies with a ratio of 2:1. Octave Refers to a situation in which a listener localizes sound in space. Localization Refers to the location, within the head, of an auditory signal presented over earphones. Lateralization A situation in which the acoustic stimuli presented to the ears differ (in frequency, intensity, phase, duration, etc.) Dichotic Listening A situation in which both ears receive identical sounds at the same instant in time. Diotic Listening Refers to the number of decibels that the threshold of one sound is raised by the presend of another sound. Masking