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274 Cards in this Set

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What is health according to the world health organization?
a state of compelte physcial, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
NAME
is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merly the absence of disease and infirmity
health according to the world health organization
NAME (other def of this word)
is a dynamic state or conidtion that is multidimensional in nature
health
What is community?
is a group of people that have common characterisics
NAME
is a group of people that have a common characterisitcs
community
What is community health?
is the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions, both private, and public, to promote, protect, and preserve their health
NAME
is the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditons, both private and public, to promote, protect, and preserve thier health
community health
What is population health?
is the health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group or locaility and thier actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve thier health
NAME
is the health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group or locality and thier actions and conidtions to promote, protect, and preserve thier health
population health
What is public health?
is the health status of a defined group of people, and governmental actions and conidtions to promote, protect, and preserve the people's health
NAME
is the health status of a defined group of people, and governmental actions, and conidtions to promote, protect, and preserve the people's health
public health
What is the differ btwn community and personal health?
(1)personal-made up of individualt actions and descions that affect the health of an indivdual or his or her immediate family (2)community-are activites aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community
NAME
are activites aimed at protecting or improving the health of a popultion or community
community health
NAME
includes indivdual actions and descion makings that affect the health of an indivdual or his or her immediate family
community health
What are (4) factors affecting community health?
(1)physcial factors (2)socail/culture factors (3)community organization (4)individual behaviors
What are some physcial factors that affect community health? (4)
(1)industrial development (2)community size (3)environment (4)geography
What are some cultural and social factors that can affect a community's health? (6)
(1)beliefs, traditions, and prejudices (2)economy(3)poltics (4)religion (5)socioeconomic status (6)social norms
What are some ways that community organization can affect the community (2)?
(1)ways in which the communities organize thier resources (2)tax supported vs non-tax supported services
What is one way that indivdual factors can affect community health?
it takes the concerted effort of many to make it work
What is medicare?
is government health insurance for the ederly and those w certain disabilties
NAME
is government health insurance for the ederly and those w certain disabilties
mediacre
What is medicaid?
is governemnt health insurance for the poor
NAME
is government health insurance for the poor
medicaid
What is one problem w medicaid and medicare?
bc of the "baby boomers" retiring, there are more people taking out of medicaid and medicare than putting in to it
Who does WHO serve?
countires of the united nations
What is the objective of WHO?
is the attainment by all of people of the highest level of health
What is healthy people 2010?
is a set of health objectives for the nation to achieve over the first decade of being a new country
NAME
is a set of health objectives for a nations to achieve over the first decade of being a new country
healthy people 2010
Who are the two overaching goals of healthy people 2010?
(1)increase the quailty and years of a healthy life (2)eliminate health disparties
How many leading health indicators are there?
10
Who is highlighted as group for leading health indicators and why?
people in the USA, to increase thier quailty of life
What are the focal areas addressed in the leading health indicators/
mental, physcial, and health service, and health issues
What is MAP IT?
is a tenique used to "map out" the path toward the change you want to see in your community
NAME
is a tenique used to "map out" the path toward the change you want to see in your community
MAP IT
What is a epdemiolgoists?
study outbreaks of disease, injury, and death in the human population
NAME
study outbreaks of disease, injury, and death in the human population
epdemiolgiosts
NAME
the primary concern is the course of disease in a pop
epidemoiologists
What is epidemiolgy?
is the study of the distribution and determination of diseases and injuries in human pop
NAME
is the study of the distribution and determination of diseases and injuries in human pop
epidemiolgy
What is endemic disease?
a disease that occurs regulatriy in popultion
NAME
is a disease that ocurs regulatiry in a population
endemic disease
What is a epidemic?
is an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population
NAME
is an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular pop
epidemic
St. Louis Encephatltis, Legionaires, AIDS, and lyme disease, are exs of (1)
recent epidemics in the USA
What is a epidemiolgoists?
is one who practices epidemiolgy
NAME
is one who practices epdiemiolgy
epidemiolgists
What is a epizootiologists?
one who studies disease outbreaks in animals
NAME
is one who studies disease outbreaks in animals
epizootiologists
What is a pandemic?
is an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical area
NAME
is an outbreak of a disease over a wide geographical area
pandemic
Who is Hippocrates?
the father of medicine
NAME
is the father of medicine
Hippocrates
What is a case def?
a set of criteria for deciding whether a person has a particular disease or other health-related conidtion
NAME
is a set of critria for decidcing whether a person has a particular disease or other health related conidition
case defintion
What is a rate?
the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time
NAME
is the numner of events that occur in a given pop in a given period of time
rate
Why are rates important?
bc they allow for comprasion of outbreaks that occur at a different times or in different places
What are acute diseases?
are diseases whose peak severity of symptoms ocurs and subsides within days or weeks
NAME
are diseases whose peak severity of symptoms ocurs and subsides within days or weeks
acute diseases
What are chronic diseases?
are diseases that usally last three months or longer
NAME
are diseases that usally last three months or longer
chronic diseases
What are notifable diseases?
infectious diseases that can be an epidemic
NAME
are infectious diseases that can be an epidemic
notifable diseases
What is NETS?
tracts notifable diseases
NAME
tracts notifable diseases
NETS
What does NETS stand for?
Electronic telecommunication system
What are three important rates?
(1)natatilty (2)morbidity (3)moratailty
the nataility rate refers to the (1)
birth rate
the morbidity rate refers to the (1)
disease rate
the moratility rate refers to the (1) rate
fatality rate
What is the natailty rate?
# of births in area in a calander yr/ population in area of the same year
NAME
# of births in area in a calander yr / population in area of the same yr
natailty rate
What is the morbidty rate?
# of cases of residents w illness in area in a calander yr / pop in the area in the same yr
NAME
# of cases of residents w illness in area in a calander yr / pop in area in the same yr
morbidty rate
What is the mortailty rate?
# of deaths to residents in area in a calander yr / population in the area in the same yr
NAME
# of deaths to residents in area in a calander yr/ the pop in the area in the same yr
mortailty rate
What are three imporant types of moribidity rates? (3)
(1)incidence rates (2)prevalence (3)attack
What is a incidence rate?
# of new cases of a diseases in a certain time period / pop at risk in the same time period
NAME
# of new cases of a disease in a certain time period / pop at risk in the same period
incidence rate
What is the prevalence rate?
# of new and old cases of the diseases in a certain time period / pop at risk in the same time period
NAME
is the # of new and old cases of the disease in a certain time period/ pop at risk in the same time period
prevalence rate
What is the attack rate?
# of new cases in a narrowly defined pop during a spefic time period / pop at risk in the same time period
NAME
# of new cases in a narrowly defined pop during a specfic time period / pop at risk in the same time period
attack rate
What are three important mortailty rates?
(1)crude death rate (2)age-specifc death rate (3)cause specfic death rate
What is the crude death rate?
# of deaths (all causes)/ estimated mid-yr pop
NAME
# of deaths (all causes)/estimated mid-yr pop
crude death rate
What is the age-specfic death rate?
number of deaths/Estimated midyear pop
NAME
# of deaths / estimated mid yr pop
age-specfic death rate
What is the cause specfic death rate?
# of deaths / estimated mid yr pop
NAME
# of deaths /estimated mid yr pop
cause spefic death rate
What is the case fatailty rate?
is the percentage of cases that resulted in death
NAME
is the percentage of cases that resulted in death
case fatailty
what is the proportionate mortalilty rate?
describes the relationship btwn the number of deaths from specfic causes and the total number of deaths attributed to all causes
NAME
describes the relationship btwn the number of deaths from specfic causes and the total number of deaths attributed to all causes
prportionate mortailty rate
How are births, deaths, and diseases reported? draw a picture
p 32 of notes
NAME
is conducted every 10 yrs and is enumeration of a pop
US census
What are some sources of standardized data?
(1)US census (2)staistica abstract of the USA (3)Vital statistics
NAME
are statistics on social, politcal, and economic organization
statistical abstract of the USA
NAME
statistical summaries of records of major life events
vital statistics
What does MMWR stand for?
morbidity and mortailty weekly reports
What are some standardized measurements of health status? (5)
(1)mortatilty stats (2)life expectancy (3)years of potenital life lost (4)disabilty adjusted life yrs (5)disabilty adjusted life expetancy
NAME
is a measure of assocation btwn incidence of disease in unexposed group or exposed group
relative risk
NAME
estimates "relative risk" bc incidence measures cannot be obtained from two groups
odds ratio for a case study
For a epidemiological study, what three things need to be taken into consideration? (3)
(1)who (2)when (3)where
NAME
is a graphic display of the cases of disease by the time or date of the onset of the symptoms
epidemic curve
NAME
is the testing of hyptotheses about relationships btwn health problems and possible risk factors
epidemiological studies
Why is the school health program an important component of community health?
bc every citzin must pass through this instituion
(1) is a important component of community health
school health program
NAME
is an organized set of polices, procedures, and activites designed to prtoect, promote, and improve the health and well being of students and staff, thus improving the student's ability to learn
coordinated school health program
Draw what things are involved in a coordinated school health program?
pg 61 of notes
What is the primary role of the school health team?
provide coordination of the various components of the coordinated school health program
NAME
thier primary role is to provide coordination of the various components of the coordinated school health program
school health team
NAME
the role of this person is instrucion, services, school living, and coordination
teacher
Why is their a need for school health?
bc the health of children and thier learning are reciprocally related
T or F
the health of children and thier learning are not related
false
An unhealthy child can have (1) and (2)
(1)trouble learning (2)disturb other students from learning
What are the foundations of the school program?
(1)support of school adminstration (2)well-organized school health council (3)written school health policies
NAME
are written statements that provide a framework to guide
school health policies
Describe the nature of the program and procedures for its implementation? (3)
(1) development (2)implemenation (3)monitoring the status of school health policy in the USA
What are the components of school health?
(1)administration and organization (2)school health services (3)health education
Researchs shows that (1) work but not all schools have them and the need for them is strong
programs
What is a controversy in the coordinated health program?
differing values and religous teachings and on differences regrading the proper implemenation of the curriculm
What is a issue w school based clinics and school linked clinics?
have been met w resistance in certain communities
What are some barriers to comprehensive school health education? (6)
(1)lack of local administrative commitment (2)lack od adequate prepared teachers (3)lack of time in the school day/year (4)lack of money/funds (5)health education's lack of credibilty as an academic subject (6)lack of community/parental support and controversail topics
What are some ways to reduce controversail school health curricula? (5)
(1)implementing age-appropriate curricula (2)using acceptable teaching methods (3)developing school policy that allows parents/gaurdains to review the curriculm being taught and have the right to remove thier child if they believe neccesary (4)implementing a school policy for handling concerning parents (5)making sure qualifed teachers teach
How are diseases and health problems classifed? (2)
(1)by organ or organ system (2)causative agents
What are some causative agents? (3)
(1)biological agents (2)chemical agents (3)physcial agents
What are some biological agents? (6)
(1)viruses (2)rickettsiae (3)bacteria (4)fungi (5)protozoa (6)metazoa
What are some chemical agents?(8)
(1)pesticdies (2)food addictives (3)pharmoctogics (4)industrial chemicals (7)air pollutants (8)cigaratte smoke
What do all chemical agents have in common?
are man maid
What are some physcial agents? (6)
(1)heat (2)light (3)radiation (4)noise (5)vibration (6)speeding objects
How are diseases classifed? (2)
(1)communicable vs noncommunicalbe (2)Acute vs chronic
NAME
exs include common cold, pneumonia, mumps, measules, pertusis, typhoid fever, and cholera
acute communicable diseases
Give 2 exs of acute communicable diseases?
(1)common cold (2)pneumonia
NAME
ex(s) include appendicits, poisoning, and trauma
acute noncommunicalbe
Give (3) examples of some acute noncumunicale diseases?
(1)appendicitis (2)poisning (3)trauma
NAME
ex(s) include tuberculosis, AIDS, lyme disease, syphillis, and rheumatic fever
chronic communicalbe diseases
NAME
ex(s) include diabtes, coronoary heart disease, osteoarthitis, and cirrhosis of the liver
chronic noncummunicable
Draw the different parts of the communicable disease model
pg 40-41 of the notes
What is the agent?
the element that must be present in order for the disease to ocur
NAME
is the element that must be present in order for the disease to ocur
agent
What is a host?
any susceptible organism invaded by a chemical agent
NAME
is any susceptable organism invaded by an infectious agent
host
What is the environment?
are all other factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission
NAME
are all other factors that inhibit or promote disease tranmission
environment
Draw the process of infection
(in other words the chain of infection)
pg 41-43
What is the pathogen?
is the disease causing agent
NAME
is the disease causing agent
pathogen
What is the reservoir?
is the habitat in which an infetious agent normally lives and grows
NAME
is the habitat in which an infectious agent normally lives and grows
reservoir
NAME
refers to when the reservoir is humans
antroponoses
What is antroponoses?
refers to when the reservoir is in humans
What is zoonases?
is when the reservoir is a animal
NAME
refers to when the reservoir is an animal
zoonases
What is the portal of exit?
the path by which the agent leaves the sources host
NAME
is the path by which the agent leaves the sources host
portal of exit
What are (2) ways that pathogens are transmitted?
(1)direct (2)indirect
What is direct transfer?
is immediate transfer
NAME
is immediate transfer
direct transfer
How can a pathogen by tranfered directly?
(1)direct contact (2)droplet spread
NAME
means it can be transferd by either direct contact or droplets
direct transfer
What are the different ways that a pathogen can be transfered directly?
(1)airborne (2)vehicleborne (3)vectorborne
NAME
means it can be transferd by either air, a vehicale, or vector
indirect transfer
What are the differ ways that a agent can enter ?
(1)respiratory (2)oral (3)skin (4)intravenous (5)GI
What is the final link of the chain of infection?
new host
Draw the noncommunicable disease model
p 44 see notes
What does CHD stand for?
Coronary heart disease
What is CHD?
when the coronary aerties are damaged
NAME
is when the coronary aerties damaged
CHD
What is atherosclerosis?
is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from the build up of fatty deposits on the walls of the blood vessel
NAME
is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from the build up of fatty deposists on the walls of the blood vessel
atheroscelrosis
What is cerebrovascular disease?
is when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted
NAME
is when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted
cerebrovascular disease
Cerebrovascular disease refers to (1)
a stroke
(1) refers to a stroke
cerebrovascular disease
What is a maligant neoplasm?
ocurs when cells lose control over thier growth and division
NAME
ocurs when cells lose control over thier growth and cell division
maligant neoplasm
What is metastasis?
is when parts of the tumor break off and travel to the rest of the body's organs and cont thier growth
NAME
is when parts of the tumor break off and travel to the rest of the body's organ and cont thier growth
metastasis
(1), (2), and (3) are important in priortizing prevention and control efforts
(1)leading causes of death (2)yrs of potiental life lost (3)economic cost to soceity
What are the levels for preventing diseases? (3)
(1)primary (2)secondary (3)teritary
NAME
is the forestalling of the onset of the illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period
primary prevenation
NAME
is the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease before the disease becomes advanced
secoundary prevenation
What is secoundary prevenation?
is the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease before the disease becomes advanced
Wht is tertiary prevenation?
is the retaining, reeducation, and rehabilitation of the patient who has already incured disability
NAME
is the retaining, reeducation, and rehabiliation of the patient who has already incured disability
tertiary prevenation
How can pathogens be prevented from infecting people? (5)
(1)pasteurization (2)chlorination (3)antibiotics (4)antivirals (5)disinfectants
How can communialbe diseases be prevente from the human reservoir? (4)
(1)isolation (2)survelliance (3)quarantine (4)drug treatment
How can communicalbe diseases be prevented from the portal of exit? (5)
(1)gowns (2)masks (3)condoms (4)hair nets (5)insect repellents
How can communiacble diseases be prevented from being transmitted?(7)
(1)isolation (2)hand washing (3)vector controling (4)sanitary engineering (5)sneeze glass (6)sexual abstinence (7)safer sex
How can communiable diseases be prevented from entering the host? (4)
(1)masks (2)condoms (3)safety glasses (4)insect repellants
At a primary level, how can a noncommunicalbe disease be prevented? (8)
(1)adquate food intake (2)good opportunites for good eduaction, employment, and housing (3)efficient community services (4)health promotion (5)access to medical services (6)protection from the environment (7)protection from occupational hazzards (8)empowerment of ones own health
At a secoundary level, how can noncommunicalbe diseases be prevented? (6)
(1)mass screenings (2)case-finding measues (3)adequate health personal, equipment, and facilites (4)personal screening (5)hemoccult tests (6)pap tests
At a tertiary level, how can noncommunicalbe diseases be prevented? (5)
(1)adequate emergency medical personnel services, and faciilites (2)understand unmodifable risk factores (3)lifestyle changes (4)support groups (5)counseling
What is primary prevenation?
the forestalling of the onset of an illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period
What is a mental illness?
is a diagnosalbe mental disorder
NAME
is a diagnosalbe mental disorder
mental illness
T or F
mental illness is a major community health issue
mental illness
(1) is a major community health issue
mental illness
What is mental health?
is a state of succesful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activites, fulfilling relationships w other people, and the ability to adapt to change and cope w adversity
NAME
is a state of succesful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activites, fulfilling relationships w other people, and the ability to adapt to change and cope w adversity
mental health
NAME
health conditions that are charaterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior assocaited w distress and/ or impaired functions
mental disorders
What are some non-govenermental agenices for mental health?
(1)national alliance for the mentally ill (2)
What are some federal agenices for mental health?
(1)US public health service (2)the center for substance abuse treatment (3)the center for substance abuse prevention (4)center for mental health services
What are some future challenges for mental health in managed care organizations? (3)
(1)evidenced-base medicine (2)cost containment (3)behavioral health care service
What are some future challenges for the parity issues? (2)
(1)mental health parity act (2)there is still not fully parity in health care coverage btwn general health care services and mental health care services
What is the health care system like?
has a variety of providers and settings
is there a national health care serivce?
no
What are some concerns with the structure of the health care system's stucture? (3)
(1)informal cooperation of providers (2)disease treatment vs health care (3)conglomeration vs system
What are some major concerns in the USA ? (6)
(1)medical care cost (2)drug abuse (3)budget deficit (4)crime (5)unemployment (6)AIDS
What is the spectrum of health care delivery?
refers to the types of heath care provided
What are the parts of the medical partice? (3)
(1)primary (2)secondary (3)tertiary
What kind of heatlh care delivery are there? (2)
(1)long term practice (2)end of life pratice
Describe long-term health care delivery?
has restoratice care and long term care
What is a end of life practice?
care provided to those who have less than six months left to live
NAME
is care provided to those who have less than six months to live
end of life pratices
Hopstice is a ex of a (1)
end of life pratice
What makes up primary care?
(1)front line (2)education (3)promotion of nutrion (4)safe water and santion (5)maternal and child health care (6)immunization (7)treatment common diseases and injuries (8)provide essential drugs
NAME
includes front line, education, promotion of nutrion, safe water and sanation, maternal and child health care, immunization, treatment of common diseases and injuries, and provide essential drugs
primary medical care
What is secondary medical care?
is specialezed health care
NAME
is specialzed medical care
secoundary health care
What are the two types of secondary medical care?
(1)acute (2)subacute
NAME
ex(s) of this care include emergency care, care provided by a physicans, and hospital or outpatient
secondary medical care
What are some ex(s) of secondary medical care? (3)
(1)specailzed care by physicans (2)hospital or outpatient (3)emergency care
NAME
involves restorative care and long term care
long term pratice
What is tertiary medical care? (4)
(1)highly specialized and technological (2)is for those w unusual or complex conditions (3)academic health care centers (4)specailzed hostpitals
NAME
is highly specialized and techonological and for those w unnusual or complex conidtions
tertiary medical care
NAME
ex of this medical care is specialized hospitals
tertiary medical care
NAME
a ex of this medical care is acadaemic health centers
tertiary medical centers
What are some types of illnesses that require a person to get tertiarty medical care? (4)
(1)AIDS (2)cancer (3)heart disease (4)surgery
NAME
this type of medical care might deal w illness like AIDS, cancer, heary disease, and surgery
tertiary medical care
What is restorative care?
is health care provided to patients after surgury or other forms of treatments
NAME
supports services that provide holistic care for dying persons , thier familes and loved ones
hospice health care
What are the differ types of health care providers? (5)
(1)independent (2)limted (3)nurses (4)allied health care proffesionals (5)public
NAME
include chiorpactors, acupenturists, naturopaths, and homepaths.
nnoallopathic
nonallopathic refers to (1)
alternative medicine
NAME
ex(s) include dentists optometrists, paodiartists, and psychologists
limted health care providers
GIve some exs of limited health care providers? (4)
(1)dentists (2)optometrists (3)podiatrists (4)psychologsts
What is does RN stand for?
registered nurse
What does LPN stand for?
licensed pratical nurses
What does BSN stand for?
bachelor of science in nursing
What does APN stand for?
advanced pratice nursing
What are the differ types of nurses? (4)
(1)LPN (2)RN (3)BSN (4)APN
NAME
provide services that assist, facialte, and complement work of physicans
Allied health care proffesionsals
NAME
work in public health clinics and voluntary agencies
pubic health care proffesionals
What are (4) types of health care facilities?
(1)practionar offices (2)clincs (3)hosptials (4)ambulatory care
NAME
are privately owned pratices
practioner offices
Do most people have access to a primary care physican?
no
T or F
every person has access to a medical care servies
true
Who are most vunerable to not having medical insurance? (7)
(1)younger people (2)less education (3)lower income (4)nonwhites (5)not us citzens (6)males (7)locations
what is a problem w access to health care?
there is limited availabilty and accesiblty of services for poor, those w inedquate insurance, or none
Describe the how ones pays for health care w insurance? (3)
(1)fee for service (2)prepaid health care (3)a third pary payment
What are preniums?
are regular periodic payments
NAME
are regular periodic payments
preniums
What are deductibles?
is a amount of money that the beneficiary must pay before the insurance can begin to pay for covered serivice
NAME
refers to the amount of money that the beneficiary must pay before the insurance begins to pay for covered services
deductibles
What is co-insurance or co payment?
when a portion or percentage of an insurance company's appoved for amounts for covered services that the benficiary is responsible for paying
NAME
when a portion or percentage of an insurance company's appoved for amounts for covered services that the benficiary is responsible for paying
co insurance or co payment
What is a fixed indemnity?
is the max amount an insurer will pay for a certain service
NAME
is the max amount an insurer will pay for a certain service
fixed indemnity
What are some trends in insurance coverage? (5)
(1)more complex plans (2)increasing diveristy of products (3)delivery care through networks (4)shifting financial structures and incentives (5)managing utilization
What are two major factors of the cost of insurance?
(1)risk of group (2)amounf of coverage provided
do to increaseing costs of health insurance, many employers are forced to (4)
(1)increase worker's prenium (2)raise the deductibles (3)increase co payment (4)increase the number of items of the exclusion list
What is medigap?
is a supplemental insurance program specfically for those on medicare
NAME
is a supplemental insurance program for those on medicare
medigap
What are some advantages of mangaed care? (5)
(1)comprehensive befits (2)evidence based high quailty care (3)well-documented services (4)integrated delivery systems (5)accountabilty
What are some disadvantages of managed care? (4)
(1)act of confidence (2)delays in receiving care (3)connot understand bills (4)believe charges are based upon coverages
What are some strengths of the Canadian health care system?
(1)no one is w/out care (2)equity across income groups
What does SCHIP stand for?
State Children's Health Insurance Program
What is the Oregon health plan?
is a revised medicaid coverage
NAME
is a revised medicaid coverage
Oregon health plan
What are some supplemental health care insurance?
medigap
medigap is a (1)
supplemental health insurance
Questions to ask when an illness, injury, or death occurs at unexpected or unacceptable levels in a community or population…to determine what the persons involved have in common –
(1)how many people are sick?
(2)Who is sick?
(3)when the people got sick?
(4)where?