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16 Cards in this Set

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Worksite
- Health pamphlets, pedometers, smoking, gyms, mammography during work day; Va benefits program for preg.
- Modestly effective besides saving companies money (less absenteeism, lower insurance costs) esp. of voluntary.
Health Education Campaigns
- Public Service Announcements, ex. parents for drugs/smoking.
- Can be effective
- Stanford study on communities (most health beh. chanages) esp. face to face in addition to PSA/social norms.
- Study: stairs vs. elevators/escal.; 18000 shoppers with sign for health or physical; 5% used stairs before to 7% (over 40 yrs to 8%) Johns Hopkins.
Obesity
Having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass or BMI of 30 or higher.
(Currently: airplane weight; stretchers, obgyn patients.)
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A measure of an adult's weight in relation to his/hre health, specifically the adult's weight in kg / (square of height in meters)
Source;
1991
1996
2004
CDC;s Beh. Risk Factor Surveillance Sys.
- No states > 19% obesity
- More states 15 - 19%
- Almost all 20 - 24% and 25% (esp. south)
Causes of Obesity
1) Genetics
1) The number of fat cells (devel. in early years but grow and can divide)
- Newborn feeding styles/amount
- Where fat is stored; energy stored as lean tissue or fat.
- 50% of pop. may be prone to be overweight.
- Resting metabolism indicates speed.
- Monitoring areas of brain.
Causes of Obesity
2) Lifestyle
A
Study: Portion sizes in Paris 20% smaller.
Children: 15-19% overweight
- Older: Not as responsive to body. Day 2 protions doubled and older children still finished. (HappyMeal 640 cal and supersize meal 1500 cal)
Causes of Obesity
2) Lifestyle cont.
B
Study cont: Goldfish crackers offlimits; Snacks in room alone; restrictive feeding's children at the most due to inc. interest. Solutions: Reasonable portion sizes, learning to like healthy foods through repetition. Damage to arteries as early as 7yrsold.
Causes of Obesity
2) Lifestyle cont.
C
Study on activity monitoring; 3.5 hrs tv per day/24 hrs per wk.
More TV led to inc. eating and dec. TV inc. physically (1/3 time to phy. activity, some less eating, accelerators) Future predictor of activity and eating.
Causes of Obesity
3) Socioeconomic Status
Lower income women heavier, but not men.
Study: percep. of parent's weight as obese 4x likely for biol. and nonbiol. parents.
Causes of Obesity
4) Malfunc. Ventromedial Hypothal.
Cue to indicate fulness rate otherwise die from overeating (triple weight if lesioned); Lateral Hypothal - will not eat at all or drink.
Causes of Obesity
5) Serotonin Levels
Depression and possibly eatign related; effort to compensate for serotonin levels eat more carb.
Causes of Obesity
6) Stress
Chronic, acute...
Fattier, sugary diets for rates under chronic stress; Hormonal (neg) feedback sys aborted; less stress with higher fat (dec. stress hormones)
Reduced brain's drive to control stress hormones...
Causes of Obesity
1) Genetics; 2) Lifestyle; 3) Socioeconomic Status; 4) Malfunc. Ventromedial Hypothal.; 5) Serotonin Levels; 6) Stress
Treatment of Obesity
1) Environmental
Ex. Removing vending machines from schools.
- Urbanites walk more and less likely to be obese. Study: San Diego vs. Cleveland, walking dist; urban sprawl and health (4yrs from life) Suburbs must drive everywhere. Less malls and sep. stores trend.
Treatment for Obesity
2) Dieting
Most common approach to obesity; usu. does not wk.
- Rapid weight loss not helpful, slows metabolism (yo-yo dieting) slows met. for regular habits.
- Take 75 less cal and burn 75 more cal a day (1-2lbs/month)
- "Volumetrics" vs. density (choc. or angel food cake); less meat vs. veg. on hamburgers; less preoccup on portion size.