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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are two tpes of ethical relativism
ethical subjectivism and cultural relativism
what is ethical subjectivism
moral truths are only personal vuews or individual opinions about what is right and wrong
what is cultural relativism
mora truths are merely the norms societies create and maintain to regulate themselves.
what is utilitarianism
they are concerned about the aggregate happiness of all sentient beings-- that is any and al beings capable of experiencing pleasure or pain, including nonhuman animals
what does a consequentialist ethical theory state?
the intended or actual consequences of an ethical choice determine its rightness
Immanuel Kant's Categorial Imperative states:
lying is bad universally, it is bad for clinical trials and dont lie even if emotion is attached
principle of totality
it is not morally permissible for human beings to submit to surgeries and the like, unless they do so for the good of their entire bodies
prinicple of double effect
if an action has two effects- an inteded good and an unintended bad- the acion mabe be performed for the sake of the good effect provided that 1) the inteded good effect is at least equal in balue to the unintended bad effect and 2) the bad effect is not he means of producing the good effect
negative rights
the rights of noninterference which specify what ought not be done to a person
defensive medicine
the fear of malpractice suit leads doctor's hesitating to treat or ordering more tests
the intentional limitation of the autonomy of one person who limits autonomy appeals exclusively to grounds of benefit to the other person
engineering model
dont view patients as unique persons with fears and hopes, but as bodies in need of repair
priestly model
they are also eperts about life and how it should be led. they provide care fo the patients' spirits and psyches as well as the body
collegial model
healthcare professional and the patient work together as equals to codetermine what is best for the patient
what are three parts to patients rights
confidentiality and privacy
truthfulness, veracity and full disclosure
informed consent
customary practice standard
requires healthcare professionals to disclose to patients the information reasonable healthcare professionals in their locale wuld disclose under the same or similar conditions
reasonable patient standard
requires healthcare professionals to disclose to patients all the facts a reasonable patient anywhere would consider necessary to make a good treatment choice
what are Kleinmann's five meanings of illness
biological, cultural, personal, socia and moral
behavioral research
not focused on the physical or organic underpinnings of human disease, but rather on the psychological and socialogical ramifications of human disease
the Belmont Report identified what three basic ethical priniciples for human subjects research
respect for persons,
selective abortion
baby is the wrong sex or has a genetic disease
therapeutic abortion
mom's health will be severely compromised if she continues with pregnancy
elective abortion
mom jsut doesnt want to be pregnant now or at all
identifiable point between conception and birth