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85 Cards in this Set

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3 Characteristics to Maintain a Healthy Diet
Balance
Moderation
Variation
Nutrition and Good Choices
Body works daily/continuously to repair and replenish old tissue, muscle, bone, skin, and blood
Which choices make you more or less susceptible to disease?
Food choices and behavior choices
What percentage of our daily calories are consumed away from home?
33% or 1/3
What are the six basic nutrients?
Protein, carbs, fat, vitamins, minerals, and water!
Nutrients
substances obtained from food that promtote growth, maintenance, or repair
Body uses energy to do work and produce heat
Calorie
unit used to measure energy
a calorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temp of a liter of water 1 degree C
Alcohol
has no nutiritional value
some energy (sugar)
1 gram=7 calories
Protein
provides basic materials for cell growth and repair
helps build skin, blood, muscles, and bone; aids w/hormone formation; regulates chemical processes; forms enzymes; carries nutrients to cells; major component of immune system
Protein is made up of amino acids
4 cal/gram
Amino acids composed of Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen
Amino acids come from either plant or animal sources
How many amino acids does the body manufacture?
11/20 (nonessential amino acids)
The remaining 9 are essential amino acids that are found in food
Complete Proteins
contain ALL the essential amino acids (chicken, fish)
Incomplete Proteins
may contain only some of essential acids or may contain all just in insufficient amts (pinto beans, brown rice)
What happens when the body is missing an essential amino acid
The body replaces it w/a diferent essential amino acid in excess.
What percentage of carbs should be in a daily diet?
55-60%
Carbohydrates
supply body w/energy; digested easily and metabolized more efficiently (preferred source of energy)
Simple Carbs
all sugars chemically similar to glucose or converted to glucose by body; sugar
What simple sugars must the body have?
Glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose
Complex Carbs
long chains of glucose units; keeps blood sugar at consistent level; stored in the muscle/liver as glycogen. Examples include starches (grains and veggies) and fiber (soluble and insoluble)
Study the carbohydrate diagram in your notes!
Ok, John. I will!
Sugar Alcohol
Energy yielding nutrients (has calories)
Does NOT contribute to tooth decay
Examples are Manitol or Sorbitol
Artificial Sweeteners
Provides no energy/calories
Saccharin used primarily in soft drinks and table sweetener
Aspartame used in gum, cereal, gelatin, puddings, diet drinks. FDA approved
Insulin
hormone and protein
secreted by pancreas
controls level of sugar in blood
insulin helps glucose out of blood and into cells
Diabetes
failure to make or respond to insulin
Type 1 Diabetes
body cannot make enough insulin
Type 2 Diabetes
cells do not respond correctly to insulin
How to reduce sugar intake
Always read ingredients
Use cinnamon, vanilla, lemon/limes, allspice
Top waffles with fruit
Regular yogurt and add own fruit
100% fruit juice
Substitute homemade fruit puree instead of sugar in recipes
Be able to recognize names for sugar from notes
Ok, John. I will!
Fat
used to transport fat-soluble vitamins in body; insulate and protect organs; regulate hormones, contribute to growth; provide concentrated source of energy; essential for healthy skin
Fats give food their _____, _____, and _____
aroma, texture,and palatability
Bioavailability
the efficiency of absorption and utilization of the nutrient in foods
animal sources are more recognizable and easily absorbed
Nutrient Density
low kcal/ high nutrients
Empty calories
high kcal/ low nutrients
Study fat diagram in notes
Ok, John. I will!
Cholesterol
type of fat in the bloodstream
cholesterol is required to build and maintain cell membranes
all foods containing animal fat contain cholesterol to varying extents
What plays a large role in blood cholesterol?
Total fat-intake (mainly saturated and trans fat)
Cholesterol is insoluble in blood
It is transported in the circulatory system w/in lipoproteins
HDL cholesterol
high density lipoproteins "good"
LDL cholesterol
low density lipoproteins "bad"
Vitamins
found in small quantities; make no contribution to energy; mainly helpers/facilitators of body processes
Fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamins A,D,E, K (stored in fat cells)
too many may be toxic
cant be excreted by urination
Water-soluble vitamins
Vitamins C and B Complex (dissolves in water)
Mega doses can be toxic
excreted in urine
Minerals
found in smaller quantities and make no contribution to energy; inorganic elements the body needs
Major minerals
essential nutrients found in body 5+ grams
Trace minerals
essential nutrients found in body 5- grams
Calcium mineral
clot blood
helps regulate heart
aids in formation of bones
transmits nerve impulses
Iron mineral
deficiency leads to too few red blood cells in stream
Children can DIE from escalated iron levels
Zinc, magnesium, phosphorous, iodine, copper, manganese minerals
Can overdose on minerals
Water
most necessary for survival
What percent of our bodies is water?
60%
Water is a major component of _____.
Blood. Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to all cells.
Functions of water
aids in getting rid of waste; digest foods; maintain electrolyte balance; lubricate joints; regulate body temp
Phytochemicals
non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventative behaviors
Nonessential nutrients
not needed to sustain life
found in fruits and veggies
Antioxidant (phytochemical contributions)
protect cells from oxidative damage (vitamins C and E)
Hormonal action (phytochemical contributions)
imitate human estrogen
Stimulation of enzymes (phytochemical contributions)
stimulate enzymes that make estrogen less effective (cabbages)
DNA interference (phytochemical contributions)
interfere w/replication of DNA (beans, hot peppers)
Antibacterial effect (phytochemical contributions)
anti bacterial properties (garlic)
Physical action (phytochemical contributions)
bind physically to cell walls (prevent adhesion of pathogens)
How to Increase Phytochemical Intake
Eat at least 5 portions of fruit/veggies
Eat more real ketchup
Eat the albedo of citrus fruits
Increase soy consumption
Drink herbal teas
Eat dried fruits
Add herbs to meals
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
Defines the amts of energy, nutrients, and other dietary components that best support health
Folic acid
water soluble B vitamin
occurs naturally in food
FDA required addition to enriched breads, cereals, flours, etc
Found in leafy greens, fruits, dried beans/peas
Folic acid is a nutrient needed to prevent
anemia of pregnancy
very important in DNA/RNA duplication
supports rapid cell growth and prevents changes
adults and children need it to make red blood cells
Pregnancy and Nutrition
Eat more raw fruits and veggies
Limit liver intake (high in vit A (birth defects))
NO unpasteurized dairy (feta, blue cheese, queso blanco)
Only 2 servings of seafood a week (avoid large or raw fish)
NO caffeine
Vitamin A (upper intake level)
found 25,000 IU per pill
Zinc (upper intake level)
intake over 40 mg detrimental; pills found with 50+ mg
Manganese (upper intake level)
excess cause Parkinson's disease and other neurological side effects
Vanadium (upper intake level)
found supplements that had 1.85 mg/pill (cause kidney problems)
Whole grains
Make 1/2 of intake of grains whole grains. Must have bran, germ, and endosperm.
How many servings of whole grains do active individuals need?
4-6
What is one serving of grain equal to?
one slice of bred
a cup of cereal
1/2 cup hot cereal, pasta, rice, etc
Carbs and athlete nutrition
directly used by muscles for energy
stored as glycogen in muscles and liver. Glycogen is transformed into glucose for 90 minutes of energy
Protein and athlete nutrition
varied diet will give enough protein to muscles for growth and repair
Endurance athletes eat as much as _____ protein a day
1.2-1.4 g/kg
Strength training athletes eat as much as _____ protein a day
1.6-1.7 g/kg
Pre-game meal plan for athletes
3-4 hrs before competition
500-1000 calories meal high in carbs
Avoid high fat and fiber meals
Post-game meal plan for athletes
Refuel glycogen stores (carb rich meal)
Home-made sport drink
4 tsp sugar
1/4 tsp salt
1 tsp lemon juice
8 oz water
How many hours does it take to rehydrate completely?
36
How many calories in a 12 oz beer?
144
How many calories in 5 oz wine
Red: 105
White: 100
How many calories in 1.5 oz distilled spirit?
96
Alcohol and pregnancy
No level of alcohol has been approved safe for consumption during pregnancy
There is a higher chance for miscarriage and fetal alcohol syndrome
What is the rate of alcohol deletion in the body?
1.5 drinks every 3 hours