Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/76

Click to flip

76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
First Observed microorganisms under microscope in 1693
Ignatz Semmelweiss
reduced transmission of puerperal fever by handwashing 1860
Louis Pasteur
proposed Germ Theory 1861
Microorganism
minute living things seen under microscope
Pathogens
A microorganism that can cause disease
Communicable Disease
pathogen passed from one host to another
Host
One infectected with pathogen
Suseceptible host
one unable to fight off infection due to low resistance
Colonized
presence of microorganisms in or on patient without clinical signs and symptoms
Infection
Colonization invasion of body by diease producing pathogenic organisms
Re-infection
infected a second time by same pathogen
Cross infection
spread to another person by air current or health worker
Co-infection
infected with more than one organism
Secondary infection
an infection aquired following a primary illness
Nosocomial
an infection aquired within the hospital
Acellular
can not survive independently
Parasite
virus-survives on living tissue,
no antibiotics,
may use antiviral.
Parasite Examples
polio, influenza,common cold, HIV, mumps, herpes, hep B,vacinations can prevent some.
Bacteria
Unicellular organism,
3 shapes,
antibiotics can treat,
Bacteria Examples
pneumonia,Coccus, bacillus, spirillium, colstridium tetani, Strep throat, gonorrhea, syphillyis, chlamydia, rocky mountain spotted fever, lyme disease, vaccinations can prevent some.
colstridium tetani
causes tetanus
Fungi
Molds, yeast:
Multi and uni cell organism
more complex than bacteria
Fungi examples
athletes foot, ringworm, yeast inection, thrush
Protozoa
largest cingle cell organism
few cause disease in humans
passed by insects
transmitted by food
Protozoa examples
mylaria, dysentery, sleeping sickness, selmonila
Clostridium difficile
anaerobic bacteria causing pathogen species of pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea after recieving antibiotics. frequent case of nosocomial diarrhea
Anaerobic
microorganism that can grow in an abscence of oxygen
pseudomembranous colitis
diarrhea from overuse of antibiotics
lives for months- causes bleeding and bowel preforation
-common hazard of antibiotic use
Clostridium difficile
Patients at risk for Clostridium difficile
Chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy, gastrointestinal procedures
VRE-Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
bacteria lives in digestive track imune to vancomycin and most other antibiotics
vancomycin
antibiotic to treat strep and staph infection
Enterococcus
streptococcus in the intesinal tract
VRE-cause
over use of antibiotic
VRE - at risk patient
immunosuppressed conditions
history of vancomycin
cathaders
elderly
abdomnal surgery patients
wound/burn victim
MRSA- Methicillin Resistant Staphlococcus Aureus
Bacteria that populates on skin,mucas membranes and upper respiratory tract, intestines, and genitourinary tracts that is resistant to methicillin and penicillin
MRSA- frequent sites
nares, groin, axilla and gut
MRSA - at risk patient
antibiotic therapy
immunosuppresed patient
burn patient
catheters
surgical wounds
prolonged hospital stay
Medical Asepsis
procedure to ensure clean enviroment
Surgical Asepsis
ensure an enviroment free of all microorganisms
bacteriostatic
microorganisms to sleep-slows downs or stops growth
bacterocidal
kills bacteria
Oral Temp
takes 3 min
98.6 F
37 C
Rectal Temp
takes 5 min
99.6 F
37.6 C
Axillary Temp
takes 10 min
97.6 F
36.4
Thermoscan Temp
takes 1 sec
96.6-99.7 F
35.9-37.6 C
tympanic temp
reflects body core heat from eardrum
temporal
pulse in side of head
Carotid pulse
pulse in neck
brachial
distal upper arm, above elbow
radial pulse
wrist on thumb side
femoral pulse
in groin
popliteal
behind knee
Dorsalis pedis pulse
top of foot
posterier tibia pulse
behind ankle
prenatal pulse range
120-160
infant pulse range
115-130
child pulse range
80-115
adult pulse range
60-100
Tachycardia
fast hear rate-above 100
Bradycardia
slow heart rate-less than 60
Arrhythmia
irregular heart beat
adult respirations
12-20
child/infant respirations
20-30
newborn respirations
35-50
Pnea
Respirations
Eupnea
normal respiration
apnea
not breathing/cessation of respirations
hyperventaltion
rapid breathing depleting carbon dioxide
blood pressure
forse of blood pushing against artery walls
systolic
heart at work - top number
systolic adult normal range
90-140
diastolic
heart at rest - bottom number
diastolic adult normal range
60-90
hypertension
high blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure