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52 Cards in this Set

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Define

Homeostasis

what's a threat to this?
Who coined the term?
bio, social, & cognitive functioning has to occur within a set of limits

change, disablement = threat

Cannon
What does the physical & psych stress reaction reflect?
Person's attempt to return to homeostasis
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

-Who came up with it?
-what are the 3 phases?
-what kind of system is this
Selye

"one system" model of stress

1. Alarm
2. Adaptation
3. Exhaustion
A person is stressed and feels hungrier earlier than usual. What is this an example of?
how high levels or prolonged periods of stress can drain our homeostatic reserve
Describe the 2 systems in the brain:

Medial & Lateral
medial system - designed to acknowledge the familiar, sense of continuity & control

Lateral - recog dissonance, potential threat, novelty, & disagreement
What is triggered when an event occurs that violates a person's cognitive baseline?
an emotional reaction
What does a person's emotional reaction to a given event reflect?
-their perceptions
-expectations
-and history w/similar events
What do emotional responses reflect?
the person's psych & bx'l actions after the initial emotional reaction to a stressor
What is the sequence of the 2-system model?
Stressor -> Perception ->
1. Ant Pituit - adren cortex - glucocorticoids
2. Symp NS - Adren Medulla - NEPI/EPI
Autonomic Nervous System

- role?
- structures?
-lgly self regulating, attempt to maintain optimal physical homeostasis

PNS, SNS (pituitary, limbic, hypothalamic)
Pituitary Gland
the master gland of the endocrine system; regulates internal environ diffusely
Limbic- hypothalamic networks
primarily responsible for ANS operation

limbic - interface btwn cortical perceptual, cognitive, & historical info

Hypothalamic- monitors & regulates ANS activities
Parasympathetic NS

-where does it stem from?
- what is it involved in?
cranio-sacral/cervico-sacral

digestion, healing, sexual functioning, temp regulation, emotional expression
Sympathetic NS

- where is it on the spine?
-what is it involved in?
Thoraco-lumbar

launches efforts to return to a violated homeostasis, fight/flight, arousal, stress response (primarily)
Autonomic Balance
an old notion of a person's predisposition to respond using either the SNS or PNS. The ratio was termed "A-bar"
What NT does the PNS rely on?
ACh
What NT does SNS rely on?
NEPI and EPI
The Stress Response

Hypothalamus--> Pituitary (____) ->Adrenal Cortex (_____) & Adrenal Medulla (______)
Pituitary Gland secretes ACTH
Adrenal Cortex secretes glucocorticoids
Adrenal Medulla secretes Adrenalin
What is the purpose of glucocorticoids?
secreted by adrenal cortex

-mobilize sugar resources from body fat, reducing inflammation w/injury, promote healing
What is the purpose of Adrenalin?
secreted by adrenal medulla

-inc'ing sugar utilization blood pressure, heart rate, alertness, contracting peripheral blood vessels
What are some pathological responses to chronic stress?
Obsession
Sensitization
One-Trial Learning
Invalidism
Psychosomatic/Psychophysical Disorders
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

One-trial Learning
-often in ppl w/severe/unusual traumas

-demonstrates hypervigilance, hyper-reactivity
-baseline = unreliable, tense
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Sensitization
-reverse tolerance of some stresses
-one to many annoying event --> now very irritating
-can usually figure out problems, but social pressure, embarrassment, & self-concept can eventually paralyze
-often anxiety disorder or depression
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Obsession
-rptd severe stresses --> now preoccupied

-usually induced by a physical (often hypothalamic and limbic mech)

-compulsions can occur
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Invalidism
-person rptdly tries to cope & fails, becomes dependdent on others
-dvlps cognitive "set" of failure
-difficult to work with
Severe: ID or dissociative disorders
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Psychosomatic or Psychophysical Disorders
stress hormone leads to health threats

Specific Attitude Hypothesis reflects this idea
Specific Attitude Hypothesis
psychosomatic medicine idea that certain character profiles are assoc w/personality
What are all of these examples of?

Weak Organ Hypothesis
Recurrent Activation Hypothesis
Constitutional Hypothesis
Specific Attitude Hypothesis
theories of the etiology of psychophysical disorders
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Physical Diseases
including dementia
-kidney damage
-chronic pain syndromes
-heart attack/stroke
etc
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Growth Related
suppression of growth hormone (dwarfism); failure to thrive
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Libidinal & Repro Dysfunction
-loss of libido

"Bruce-Parkes" effect - spontaneous abortion of fetus
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Poor Aging & Autoimmune Fxtion'ing
prolonged/severe stress leads person to burn out faster (early neuron death)

-decline in cognitive abilities, skin quality, injured cells
Pathological Responses to Chronic Stress

Clinical implications
Good relaxation training


Be wary of hypnosis (can aggravate stress response)
What are the Transtheoretical Model's 5 Stages of Change?
Precontemplation
Contemplating
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Describe

Preparation
-intending to take action in next month; combines intention & bx criteria
-past failed attempt

Pop: actively planning change & may be taking steps
Describe

Precontemplation
No intention to change bx for at least next 6 months

Pop: ppl unaware of the problem, ppl who know about the probelm but aren't considering change
Describe

Contemplation
-Aware of a problem & thinking about it, but no firm commitment for action (intend to change in 6 months)

Pop: open to feedback & info but ambivalent about costs & benefits of their Bx

Pop: i
Describe

Action
-start modifying Bx, experiences, or environ
-overt bx'l changes

-change has lasted less than 6 months
Describe

Maintenance
-work to prevent relapse & consolidate gain
-resisting temptation to relapse

-6+ weeks since initial bx change (smoking - 6 months)
Describe

Decisional Balance
-pros/cons of change
-this changes w/each stage
-influ'd by culture, religion, language

Therapy: explicitly explore Pros/Cons, Edu
Describe

Self-Efficacy
Perceived ability to perform a task

Predicts future bx if adequate incentives & skills

Impacted by: early experiences, parenting
What models have been offered to help ppl become change their LOC?
-Precaution-Adoption Process Model
-Health Belief Model
-Theory of Reasoned Action
-Differential Association Reinforcement Theory
What is the most important character trait for a person to have in order to make change?
Self-Efficacy
Stages of the:

Precaution Adoption Process Model (P-AP)
1. Unaware of issue
2. Unengaged by issue
3. Deciding about acting
4. Decided not to act
5. Decided to act
6. Acting
7. Maintenance
What are the stages of the

Health Belief Model?
Susceptibility
Severity
Costs/Benefits
Cues/Motivation
Barriers
Which model is becoming more popular because of its ability to incorporate cultural factors?
Health Belief Model
Describe

Susceptibility
Health Belief Model

How likely one think a bad outcome is if bx persists
Describe the stages of

The Theory of Reasoned Action
Intentions
Attitudes
Beliefs/outcome expectancies
Values
Subjective Norms
Beliefs about what others think you should do
Motivation to comply
Describe the

Theory of Planned Behavior
Past Behavior
Perceived Bx Control/LOC/Self Efficacy
Perceived value of outcome
Describe

Differential Assoc Reinforcement Theory
Differential assoc w/others
Imitation of Models
Differential Reinforcement
Exposure & Adoption of Eval Defs
Bxl Consequences
Describe

Differential Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative punishment

Reinforcement- bx inc's
Positive= present something
Negative= take something away
Punishment= bx dec's
Describe

Imitation of Models
Walk the talk!