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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three layers of the heart?
Epicardium, Endocardium, and Myocardium
Cardiovascular Disease: what is considered a CVD and what percent of deaths are related to CVD?
strokes and all disorders related to heart and blood vessels are considered to be CVDs, and 40% of all deaths are related to CVD.
What is Coronary Heart Disease, and what are two types?
When the arteries that are supplying the heart are clogged. Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis.
Define Atherosclerosis
when fat deposits are on the inside of the vessels and blocks flow to the heart.
Define Arteriosclerosis
vessels become less elastic adn limits blood flow to the heart. Literally means a 'hardening of the arteries'.
Name 3 disease of the heart
Angina, Myocardial infarction, and stroke.
What is Angina?
Anging is extreme pain in a person's chest when blood is not flowing smoothly to the heart.
What is Myocardial Infarction?
It's a heart attack. Some of the mucle in your heart dies.
What is stroke?
The blood supply to the brain is cut off or limited.
Diagnositic for CVD: EKG
electrocardiogram--it measures the heartbeat.
Diagnostic for CVD
Coronary angiography: they dye the blood flowing through your system and take a picture to see how the blood is flowing and if there are any blockages/obstructions.
Four treatments for CVD
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Coronary Angioplasty
What is a vasodiolater?
It helps expand the blood vessels.
What is nitroglycerin?
It helps stopp a heart attack by increasing the flow of blood supply to the heart.
What is a coronary artery bypass graft?
They replace clogged vessels usually around the heart with (for example) a vessel from the leg or arm.
What are the controllable risk factors for CVD?
Obesity, hypertension, cholesterol level, and tobacco use
What are the uncontrollable risk factors for CVD?
Age, Sex, Race, Family History
What is a Type A personality?
People who are competitive, have a strong sense of time urgency, and who are hostile.
What is a Type B personality
People who are more relaxed and not pressured by time considerations
Difference between Type A and Type B people.
Type A peopple have a more rapid blood clotting and higher cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Often display greater autonomic arousal, elevated heart rate, and higher blood pressure in response to challenging events. They are less able to remain calm.
How to reduce risk of CVD
Regular exercise, healthy diet, and use of cholesterol-lowering meedication.
What are the two types of Diabetes?
Juvenile-Onsent Diabetes (Type I)
Adult-Onset Diabetes (Type II)
What causes Type I diabetes and when does it usually occur?
Type I diabetes usually occurs between 5 to 6 years of age. It is an autoimmune disease in which a pereson's immune system attacks the insulin and glucagon producing celss of the pancrease.
What causes Type II diabetes and when does it usually occur?
Type II usually appears after age 30. It is a milder form of the disease and found in 90% of all the people with diabetes. It results from an insulin resistance where the cells of the pancreas fail to make enough insulin or an insensitivity to insulin caused by a decrease in the number of insulin recepters.
Possible causes of diabetes
viral or bacterial infections, an overactive immune system, generic vulnerability, stress, poor nutrition
Treatment for Type II diabetes
Changing diet, regulating weight, and exercising.
Treatment for Type I
Insulinn management
What is cancer?
It is the growth of mutated, abnormal cells.
What are the four types of cancer?
Describe Carinoma
Related to epithelial cells-- includes breat, prostate, lung, and skin cancer
Describe Sarcoma
related to internal structures like muscles, bones, and cartilage--includes bone cancer
Describe Lymphoma and the two types.
cancer of the lymph nodes or system.
Hotchkins: spreads from one single lymph node
Non-hotchkins: several lymphnodes affected by malignant lymph nodes.
Describe Leukemia
pertains to cancer of the blood or some blood-producing area.
What rae the most common types of cancer for men and women?
Men= prostate
Womem= breast
Largest mortality rates for cancer in men and women?
Men and Women= Lung and bronchus cancer
What is a carcinogen?
A cancer-causing chemical (i.e. arsenic, asbestos...)
What is an oncogene?
It is a gene that stimulates cellular growth and division.
What is a suppressor gene?
Genes that prevent the proliferation of malignant cells by acting as a brake on cellular growth.
What are some of the risk factors for Cancer?
Tobacco use, diet, alcohol use, physical activity, family history, environmental, occupational
What is a type C personality, and what are the risk factors for them?
Stressed--they tend to be passive but really 'sweep things under the rug' and therefore does not seek help.
What are some cancer fighting foods?
Soy: lowers chance of breast, uterine, and stomach cancer.

Carotenoids: contains anti-oxidants that help protect people from the variety of things they digest.
What types of primary prevention are there?
Prospect Theory, Gain-framed, Loss-framed
What are the type of Secondary Prevention?
Early detection--self exams, early diagnostic procedures.
What is the difference between HIV and AIDS.
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.

AIDS is the disease.
Who was patient zero?
Gaton Dougas--had approx 250 partners per year.
Who is HIV more common in?
It's more common in men and sub-saharran Africans
Who has the higher incidence of HIV currently?
What are the five modes of transmission--list the most potent first and the least commmon last.
Semen, blood, vaginal secretion, breastmilk, and saliva
What does HIV do to T-cells
HIV is a retro-virus that injects a copy of its own genetic material into the DNA of the t-cell. At some point, the t-cell will divide, replicating the HIV. The t-cell levels then begin to decline and the immune system becomes weaker.
How long is the first stage of HIV and what happens during it?
The first stage is typically 1 to 8 weeks, and the immune system destroys most HIV so people experience only mild symptoms that usually goes unnoticed.
How long is the second stage of HIV and what happens during it?
This may last for months or years--it appears to be a latent stage, but actually, HIV is constantly being replicated while t-cell concentration falls.
How long is the third stage of HIV and what happens during it?
Within 5 years, 30% of people move to stage 3 when t-cells are further reduced, immune function is impaired, and infections can occur.
How long is the fourth stage of HIV and what happens during it?
The number of t-cells drop from 1,000 to 200 or less per cubic milliliter. At this point, HIV has developed into AIDS. Without treatment, death would generally occur within a year or two.
Describe the neurological impact of age?
Some patients display signs of depression, paranoia, and hallucinations that signal the AIDS dementia complex.
What is immunocompetence?
Basically means the strength of the person's immune system--HIV progresses much more slowly in those whose immune system is stronger.
What are some psychosocial factors that affect the progress of AIDS?
Stress, negative emotions, and social support.
List at least six preventative precautions that can be taken to lower your risk of AIDS.
Use a condom

Minimize your number of partners

Be selective of partners

Avoid anal intercourse

Have meaningful relations (only one partner)

Don't do stuff while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

Don't share needles


Be smart
What is self-efficacy?
The idea that you feel you have the capability to do something.
What is the CBSM?
Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management. Lowered stress, anxiety, anger, and mood disturbance and successfully raised the number of t-cells in 10 weeks.
Three factors that distinguish long-term survivors:
Positive outlook

Physical activity and exercise

Social support