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36 Cards in this Set

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Stone Age
Mind causing physical damage; evil spirits; trephination; performed in all ages/genders; 2" diam.
Egyptians
Medicine associated with religion; call on deities for demons; physicians as magicians; drinking foul drinks/beer to drive spirits out.
Greeks
Start of scientific medicine; Hippocrates(400BC); Galon(150BC); Bodily factors emphasized (balance of humors; excess blood for cheerful; black bile melancholy; yellow angry; phlegm listless.
Middle Ages
Mysticism - evil demons, much science supressed; God's punishment; Cures: torturing body then penance and good works.
Renaissance
1600s,1700s; Reawakening; microscopes developed, autopsies vs. four humors idea; cellular pathology (laboratory); religion and superstition sep.; dualism
19th Century: Benjamin Rush
Body as a machine and all disease from over stim. of nerves and blood (like Hip); heroic medicine.
19th Century: Heroic medicine
Bloodletting; scarification to bloodlet; blistering to drain purging; lacitives. French used clinical pathology (pulse and temp); Surgery last resort (usu. died; opium/alcohol)
19th Century: Skeptism about Heroic medicine; Quakery; Research
Potions; no licenses; Ex. Hydropathology with wet blankets; Phrenology; Mesmorism with magnets/hands for fluid to heart; Electrotropathy to balance charges. Later, microorg - germs.
20th Century: Freud
Mind and body connected (conv. disorders; anxiety; early 1900s; Monistic approach)
20th Century: Modern
Technology, research funded by pharmacies; 1970s (Health Psy)
Biomedical Model
Biol. components; reductionistic (single factors); Dualistic; Illness emphasized; concrete ans; prescriptions; specialists; miracle drugs; centralized.
Biopsychosocial Model
Mult. factors in interaction; monistic/holistic; emphasis on illness and health; ex. obgyn 40% not physical prob.
1) Normal Sys/Dias.
2) High Normal
3) High BP; four stages
1) <130; <85
2) 130-39; 85-89
3) Sys(19,19,29, >210 stage4) Dias (9; >120 stage4)
4. Dias (
Things that influence Blood Pressure
1) Cardiac Rate
2) Blood Volume
3) Peripheral Resistance (size of opening/diam. of artery)
4) Viscosity/thickness of blood
5)Elasticity
Psy/Beh. Factors on Blood Pressure
1) Stress, emotions
2) Weight
3) Diet (Salt; low den. lipoproteins; chol)
Psy/Beh. Factors on Blood Pressure; Effects of diet,etc.
1) Arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries)
2) Atherosclerosis (build up of plaque in arteries)
3) Myocardial Infarction/MI
4) Angina
Stress and Blood Pressure (A)
1) Sympathetic Nervous Activity Increases
2) Vasoconstriction(<bloodflow)
3) <Bloodflow to Kidneys
4) Steriod to absorb salt;
5) Thirst
6) Inc. Blood Vol (>H20)
7) Inc. BP
[SVKTBB]
Stress and Blood Pressure (B)
1) SymNerv Activity Inc
2) Vasoconstric
3) LessBloodFlow to Kidneys
4) Vasoconstric to rest of body
5) Inc. BP
Demographic Factors and BP (hypertension)
1) Sex (Men higher)
2) Ethnicity/race (Black men highest; lower elasticity; 1990s)
3) Genetics
4) Age
Hypertension Treatment
Diuretic; Dec. salt; Drugs (vasodilators; slow heart rate) Behavioral components.
Nonspecific Immunity
(Natural imm)
Specific Imm.
No previous exp. needed (ex. dirt in cut; fortress app.)
Cells focused on a certain invader; vaccines to build antibodies.
Mechanisms of Body
1) Fortress Approach
2) Eat 'em
3) Chemical Warfare
4) Arm the Masses
5) Send in the Troops
Mechanisms of Body
Ex. 4
4) Masses - Defended uninfected cells by submitting proteins so virus will to spread; Ex. interforerons with cncer.
Mechanisms of Body
Ex. 5
5) Troops - Swelling, puss (white bcs); Histamine inc. blood flow to infection for more cells; antihist - runnynose.
Specific Immunity
Humoral (inflammation)
Cell mediated
T-Lymphocytes (1 trillion)
B-Lym.
B-lymphocytes
1) Made in bone marrow and circulate in blood and lymph
2) Produce antibodies to encourage phagocytes by coating
3) Activate proteins to control foreign material
4) Block cell to keep virus from entering by coating.
T-lymphocytes
Destroy without antibodies
1)T-helper (Regulatory sys - activate B cells to maek antibodies)
2) T-Suppressor (Dec. antibodies)
3) T-Killer/Cytotoxic Cells (Bind to specific antigens and kill)
1) Thymus
2) Lymph Nodes
3) Ratio of helper to suppressor cells
1) Tissue dec. with age; 75%<by 20; gone by 60)
2) Store to blood stream; lym. vessels; white bcs.
3) Dec.
Immune Sys. Classically Conditioned (Adler)
Drug (UCS) - Suppressed Immune Sys (UCR) - paired - (Drug-Saccharin)
Stress and Immune System
1) Virus susceptibility
2) Cancer cells to animals
3) Cohen - quaratined; cold virus; stress tests
4) Pennebaker - Health center visits during finals
Stress (A)
Hypothalamus (Produces CRH)
Pituitary Gland (ACTH rel)
Adrenal Glands (Cortisol >HeartRate; antiinflam; tells hypothal. to inhibit more CRH; neg. feedback loop)
Depressed Immunity
Stress (B)
H (CRH)
PG (ACTH)
AG (Cortisol)
Depressed Immunity
Stress; Types
Obj. vs. subjective measures
Static vs. dynamic
Chronic, daily hassles, major life events.
Models of Stress: Selyes
General Adaptation Syndrone
Stress - Alarm reaction (Sym. NerSys response) - Resistance - Exhaustion
Altered Stress Model of Selyes
Stressor - Psy. distress - alarm reac - resistance - exhaustion
Stress: Lazarus
Resources
Appraisals
Cognitive appraisals (must perceive threat)
Environ/Social/Psy resources
Primary (how threatening) Secondary (how to cope)
Harm/Loss Assessments
Threat Appraisals
Challenge Appraisals