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77 Cards in this Set

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calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of water up a degree celcius
nutrient
any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organism's metabolism, growth or other functioning
carbohydrated
compounds made up of sugars used or stored as energy. Function: energy
satiety
feeling of fullness
fats
function: long term energy, insulation, carrier of certain vitamins. Includes fatty acids (a fat consists of an assemblage of three fatty acids linked to a central glycerine molecule). The body does not manufacture certain fatty acids.
Saturated Fats
a type of fat or fatty acid that can be stored in the body or round in food and tend to be solid at room temperature
Cholesterol
a primary form of fat ound in the blood
protein
function: growth and repair of tissue. is a complex, high-molecular-weight organic compound tha consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Are essential to the structure anda function of all living cells and viruses.
Amino acids
the chief components of protein. can be manufactured by the body or obtained from dietary sources.
Vitamin
function: organic components required in small amounts for normal maintenance. is an organic molecule required by a living organism in a minute amounts for normal health.
mineral
function: body maintenance. chemical elements required by living organisms. they can be either bulk minerals (required in relatively large amounts) or trace minerals (required only in very small amounts).
water
function: medium for waste transport, thermoregulation and biochemical reactions. absolute reuirement for normal growth and metabolism directly involved in all the chemical reactions of like (aka. the forgotten nutrient)
Fiber
long-chained carbohydrates that re indigestible by the human digestive tract
Food Guide Pyramid
a tool for those desiring a more advanced analysis of their food intake and physical activity. there are 5 groups on the pyramid: grains, vegetables, gruits, milk and meant and beans. There is a person walking up the steps, representing exersize.
Body image
the way one preceives their rbody
overweight
weight that exceeds 1-19% more than the desirable body weight
obesity
more than 20% above the desirable weight
Body mass index
assess body weight to height
basal metabolic rate
reate at which eregy is used by orgaisms at complete rest, measure of heat given off by unit of time
Anorexia nervosa
some causes are genetic, social and psychological; person refuses to maintain normal body weight, weighs 85% or less than what is expected, merstrual periods stop, person denies the danger, terrifed of becoming fat, terrified of gaining weight, reports felling fat even when thin
Buliemia nervosa
person binge eats, feels out of contol while eating, vomits, misuses lazatives, exercises or fasts, diests when not binging, becomes hungry and binges again, believes self-worth requires being thin, may shoplife, be promiscuous and abuse alcohol and drugs, weight may be normal or near normal, tends to be depressed and obese, has diet failures, feels guilty and ashamed of binge eating, may eat rapidly and secretly.
What are nutrients and how many/what kinds of each is recommended?
Nutrients are elements or compounds that are necessary for or contributing to an organism’s metabolism, growth and other functioning. Six nutrient groups exist: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and water
HOw many calories per gram are found in each nutrient?
Carbohydrates: 4 cal/gram
Proteins: 4 cal/gram
Vitamins: 0 cal/gram
Water: 0 cal/gram
Minerals: 0 cal/gram
Fats: 9 cal/gram
stress
physiological and psychological state of diruption caused by the presence of an unanticipated, disruptive or stimulation even
general adaptation syndrome
sequened physiological responsis to the presence of a stressor, involving the alamr, resistance and exhaustion stages
stressor
factors or events, real or imagines, that elicit a state of stress
Distress
stress the dimishes the quality of life
eustress
stress that enhances the quality of life
stress response
physiological and psychological responses to positive or negative events
fight or flight
physiological response to a stressor tha tprepares the body for confrontation or avoidance
acute stress
stress that is prolonged
episodic stress
stress that appears in short preiods
chronic stress
refers to remaining at a high level of physiological arousal for an extended period of time; it can also occur when an individual is not able to immediately react to a real or perceived threat
Alarm
frist stage of stresss;fight or flight
resistance
second stage of the stress response during which the body attempts to reestablish internal balance.
exhaustion stage
third stage or response; point at which resources used to deal with stress have been depleated
Deep breathing
allow oxygen to flow through the body, relaxing tense areas
progressive muscle relazation
learing to recognize the difference between contracted and relaxed muscles in order to gain a sense of control oer your body and the stress response. It enables you to intentionally put certain muscles into a controlled state of relaxation and reduce your overall stress levle.
guided imagery
involves having someone describe a beautiful, relaxing secene while focusing on taking deep, comfortable breaths, allowing your muscles to relax.
Set Point THeory
a genetically programmed range of body weight beyond which a person finds it difficult to gain or lose additional weight
Thermic effect on food
refers to the amount of energy our bodies require for the digestion, absorption and trasportation of food
Food guid pyramid and what does it recommend?
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverges within and among the basic food groups; adopt a balanced eating pattern; limit intake of saturated and trans fats and choose products low in these fats, make choices of meat, poultry, dry beans and milk products that are lean, low-fat or fat-free, choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or calorie sweeteners; engage is regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activites to promote health, psychological well-being and a healthy body weight; VARIETY, PROPORTIONALLY, MODERATION, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
6-11 servings are carbohydrates (bread, cereal, rice and pasta group)
2-4 servings of fruit
3-5 servings of vegetables
2-3 servings of meet and proteins
2-3 servings of milk, yogurt, and cheese
Fats, oils, and sweets used sparingly
What are the alternatives to teh food guid pyramid?
Choose whole grain over highly processed carbohydrates
Choose monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats over saturated fats and trans. fat
Select deep green and color vegetables
Choose proteins: nuts, fish, and poultry over red/processed meats
Physical activity
De-emphasize dairy products and refined grains such as white bread and white rice
Take daily multivitamin
waht is teh differene between overweight/obesity?
Overweight – condition where person’s excess fat accumulation results in body weight exceeding desirable weight by 1%-19%. Obesity is condition of person’ body weight 20% or more than desirable weight (determined by standard height/weight charts.
What are the origins of obesity?
Genetic factors, physiological and hormonal factors, metabolic factors, social and cultural factors, environmental factors, psychological factors, dietary practices, inactivity.
HOw to acieve caloric balance: what if positive or negative?
If you eat more calories than you burn, your body will convert that into fat to be used later. If you eat less than what you use, you will lose weight. Weight stays the same when the input=the output.
What are teh three energy needs of the body/what percentage of total caloric used for each?
Basal metabolism-50-70% of the total calories are used for basic function.
Activity Requirements-20-40% of caloric intake, depending on activity level
Thermic Effect of Food—10% of caloric intake for the energy used for digestion, absorption and the transportation of food
What are the 2 major eating disorders and how are they similar/different
Anorexia and Buliemia.
Buliemia-person binge eats, feels out of control while eating, vomits, misuses laxatives, exercises or fasts, diets when not bingeing, becomes hungry and binges again, believes self-worth requires being thin, may shoplift, be promiscuous and abuse alcohol and drugs, weight may be normal or near normal, tends to be depressed and obese, has diet failures, feels guilty and ashamed of binge eating, may eat rapidly and secretly.
Aneorexia- some causes are genetic, social and psychological; person refuses to maintain normal body weight, weighs 85% or less than what is expected, menstrual periods stop, person denies the dangers, terrified of becoming fat, terrified of gaining wdeight, reports feeling fat even when thin.
Understand the relationship between stress and stressors
stress is caused by stressors
how does the human body respond to stress?
Humans respond by entering into the stress response system and fight or flight.
What are teh 3 stafes of the stress response?
Alarm stage-fight or flight.
Resistance- the body attempts to reestablish its equilibrium or internal balance.
Exhaustion-the physical and psychological resources used to deal with stress have been depleted.
What is happening to the body during each stage of teh stress response?
Alarm stage-Experiences fear, panic, anziety, anger, depression and restlessness
Resistance-. Attempt to solve or avoid the problem, body focuses, try to calm oneself (deny this is happening, withdraw, shut out emotions)
Exhaustion-long-term can over load the system and organs may not be able to function and serious illnesses can develop.
What are some of teh common sources of stress for teenages?
Homesickness, relationships, balancing work, home and school, tests, speeches, learning.
What are some effetive ways to combat teh anxieties students face?
Sleep, exersize, friends, calming environment, relaxing and deep breathing, PMR, guided imagery, meditation and hypnosis, self-talk.
What are some of the effetive copin strategies we discussed in class?
relaxing and deep breathing, PMR, guided imagery, meditation and hypnosis, self-talk.
superior
higher than something
inferior
below something
lateral
view of the side of something
medial/median
divides the head and torso into right/left halves
anterior
in front
posterior
in back
proximal
closer to the midline
distal
farther from the midline
Compact bone
dense bone found in teh diaphysis underneath the periosteum
appendicular skeleton
bones taht make up the skeleton
Hinge joint
joints move like a door
-knees, elbows, fingers and toes
Ball and socket
allows joint to move in any direction
-hips and arms
gliding
joint taht allows bones to glide against each other.
-wrist
saddle
neck bones?
cartilage
bendable bone
smooth muscle
muscle taht makes up organs
cardiac muscle
Heart muscle
Skeletal muscle
Muscle that surrounds bones and provides movement
tendon
soft tissues that anchor muscles to bones
ligament
strong, fibrous tissue which attaches one bone to another
What are the six functions of the skeletal system?
1. To provide structure for the body
2. To protect vital organs
3. it allows us to move
How does the muscular system use teh skeletal system for movement?
Muscles pull, not push, the bones