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129 Cards in this Set

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gerontology
the scientific study of the effects of time on human development, specifically the study of older persons
who coined the term geriatrics? and when
ignatz nascher in 1900
centenarian
100-109
nonagenarian
90-99
super centenarian
110+
young old
65-74
old old
85-90
middle old
75-84
what is the fastest growing cronological classification?
centenarians (100-109)
life expectancy for US men?
75.4
US african american male life expectancy
70 years
US african american female life expectancy
76.9 years
US 65+ population at present
35.1 million
predicted 65+ population by 2030
72 million
% of men that live with spouse after 75
69.3%
% of women that live with spouse after 75
36%
% of population 65+ that live alone
36%
what ethnic froup is expected to grow fastest over the next 25-30 years?
hispanic
elite old or chronologically gifted
100+
% of today's population that is 65+
12.4% or 35 million
US life expectancy for women
80.7 years
5 signs of fraility
1) unintentional weight loss (>10lbs/yr)
2) general feeling of exhuastion
3) weakness (measure by grip strength)
4) slow walking speed
5) low levels of physica activity
to qualify as "frail elderly" one must have....
three of the 5 qualifying signs/symptoms
life span
total number of years that a human is likely to live or has lived
what is the life span
around 115-130
after reaching 65 a man is likely to live...
16.3 more years
after reaching 65 a woman is likely to live....
19.2 more years
after reaching 85 a man is likely to live....
5.6 more years
after reaching 85 a woman is likely to live...
6.7 years
high school education in 1950
18%
high school education in 2000
70%
ageism
discrimination based on person's age
percent of elderly that live in povery in 1967
30%
percent of elderly that live in poverty in 2003
10.2%
elderly are generally portrayed ______ in the media
negatively
what are the major groups of biological theory?
stochastic (error) and nonstochastic (programmed)
five stochastic theories of aging:
1) somatic mutation theory
2) error-catastrophe theory of aging
3) wear and tear theory
4) cross-linkage theory
5)freeradical theory
three nonstochastic theories
1)programmed aging theory
2) gene theory
3)immunity theory
wear and tear theory
attributes aging to the wear and tear on body over time as it performs its highly specialized functions
what threatens cellular division in the cross linkage theory?
cellular division threatened as a result of chemical reaction
in the cross-linkage theory where do the cross-linking agents attach themselves?
DNA strand
what does the cross linkage theory say is prevented? why?
normal parting of the strands of DNA during mitosis because of the attachment of cross linking agents
what causes the body's organs and systems to fail in the cross-linkage theory?
the accumulation of cross-linking agents
free radical theory
aging is a result of free radical accumulation
when do free radicals occur?
when the cell is exposed to environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke, radiation, smog and ozone
what can inhibit the formation of free radicals and possibly retard aging?
antioxidants such as B-carotene and vitamins E and C
nonstochastic theories....
changes of aging are attributed to process that is programmed and thought to be predetermined
programmed theory
originally called biological clock theories
immunity theory
cells of immune system lose some of their self-regulatory ability

age realted changes in immune system lead to decreased efficiency
neuroendocrine control or pacemaker theory
examination on neuroendocrine functioning over time, especially DHEA and melatonin
in the neuroendocrine theory, which neoroendocrines are focused on?
DHEA and melatonin
caloric restriction (metabolic) theory
reduction in coloric intake have multiple positive effects
what are the 7 sociological theories?
1) role theory
2) activity theory
3) disengagement theory
4) continuity theory
5) age-stratification theory
6) social exchange theory
7) modernization theory
Role theory
ability of individual to chainging roles over life course

predictor of adjustment to personal aging
disengagement theory
views aging as process in which society and individual gradually withdraw, or disengage from eachother, to mutual satisfaction and benefit to both
activity theory
an older person should continue a middle-aged lifestyle, denying existence of old age as long as possible
continuity theory
personality and basic patterns of behavior remain unchanged as individual ages
age stratification theory
elders exist in cohorts or other who have shared similar historical periods in their lives
modernization theory
status and value of elders are lost when their labors are no longer useful

-culture in which they live no longer revere them
what are the 4 psychological theories of aging?
1) jung's theory
2) developmental theories
erikson
peck
3) maslow's hierarchy
Jung's theories of personality
assumes one is either extroverted or introverted
-as one ages they move from extroverted to introverted (forcus on outward achievement to one of acceptance of self)
Developmental theories in general (Erickson and peck)
challenges that must be met and adjustments that must be made in response to life experiences that are part of an adult's continued growth through life span
Eriksons developmental tasks
ego integrity vs. despair
Eriksons Ego integrity vs despair
challenge of old age is to accept and find meaning in life the person has lived; this gives the individual ego integrity that aids in adjusting and coping with reality of aging and mortality
Peck's developmental theory
3 kinds
1) ego differentiation vs. role preoccupation
2) body transcendence vs body preoccupation
3) ego transcendence vs ego preocupation
Peck's ego differentiation vs. role preoccupation
the elderly no longer define themselves by life work role, but in individual personhood
Peck's body transcendence vs. body preoccupation:
body and changes accepted as part of life
Peck's ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
person sees oneself as a part of a greater whole
what theory is our text book based on?
Maslows heirarchy of human needs
Maslows heirarchy of human needs
As more basic-level needs are met, the satisfaction of higher-level needs is possible, with ever-deepening richness to life, regardless of one's age.
what are the 2 goals of "healthy people 2010"
1) increase quality and years of healthy life
2) eliminate health disparities
health
oriented toward maximizing potential of which individual is capable within the environment in which the person is functiong
maslow's view on health:
self - actualization
wellness approach
suggests that every person has an optimum level of functioning for each position on the wellness continuum to acheive a good and satisfactory existence
what percent of elders have chronic illness(es)?
86%
what percent of elders are capable of living independently in a community?
95%
what are the 5 key strategies for improviing health of older people?
1) healthy lifestyle behaviors
2) injury prevention
3) delivery of culturally appropriate clinical preventive services
4) immunization and preventive screenings
5) self-management techniques for those with chronic illnesses
five dimensions of wellness:
1) self-responsibility
2) nutritional awareness
3) physical fitness
4) stress management
5) sensitivity to environment
aging is not....
pathological
what are the three most important results of physiological changes?
1) loss or decrease in compensatory reserve
2) progressive loss in efficiency of body to repair damaged tissue
3) decreased immune response
with aging, tissue over bony prominances....
decreases
onychomycosis
chronic fungal infection
muslces reflexes ______ in arms, ___ ______ in abdomen, ____ in knee
lessen in arms, totally lost in abdomen, maintained in knee
____ in heart size with aging
increase
what ventricle thickens with age?
left ventricle
50% of elderly have _____ ______ (heart) grade _____ or _____
systolic murmer, grade 1+ or 2+
stroke volume _____ with age
decreases
cardiac output ______ with age
descreases
presbycardia
reduced cardiac reserve
what part of BP increases and why
systolic b/c there is increased peripheral resistance in vessels
what causes stiffening in the chest?
loss of elastic recoil, rigid rib cage
when do size and function of the kidneys begin to decrease?
4th decade
renal blood flow ____ with age
decreases
GFR _____ with age
declines
Decreased ____ and ______ of bladder and loss of bladder ___ _____
tone, elasticity, holding capacity
what two things combine to create diabetes mellitus type 2?
decreased sensitivity to insulin, increased need for insulin in obesity
decreased gastric _____ and _____ with aging
motility and volume
what happens to protective alkaline viscous mucus with age?
it is lost
what affect does the lower function of villi in the small intestine have?
lower nutrient absorption
number of neorons _____ with age
decrease
presbyopia
decreased near vision (4th decade)
senile ptosis
eyelids lose elasticity and droop
arcus senilis
gray ring at the edge of the limbus (eye)
presbycusis
high frequency hearing loss (sensorineural)
what happens to the cerumen in the elderly?
becomes thicker, drier, and more difficult to remove, causing hearing loss
what changes are in the female reproductive system? Breasts, vagina and pH
breasts become smaller and less firm
labias become less prominent, vagina loses elasticity and pH goes from 4-6 to 6-8 after menopause
what happens in the male reproductive system?
testes atrophy, fertility decreased, decreased sexual function
what is the most important age-related change in the immune system?
reducity immunity at the cellular level
FANCAPES
Fluids
Aeration
Nutrition
Communication
Activity
Pain
Elimination
Socialization/social skills
katz index of ADL's
lists essential functions and scores patients on whether they can perform them independently, with assistance or are dependent on others
what are the 6 basic ADL's?
bathing
dressing
toileting
transferring
continence
feeding
what are the 5 family function of the APGAR test?
adaptation
partnership
growth
affection
resolution
what are the 4 heatlh disparities?
access
treatment
disease outcomes
elderly and minorities "double jeopardy"
ethnicity
belonging to or deriving from the cultural, racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country
ethnocentrism
the belief in inherent superiority of ones' group and culture accompanied by devaulation of other groups or cultures
ethnogeriatrics
the medical science dealing with disease, disabilities, and care of ethnic elders
african americans in comparison with whites are....
50% more likely to have a stroke
50% more likely to die of stroke
20% more likely to die of heart disease
biomedical
scientific or western medicine
disease
objective term used by caregivers
illness
subjective term describing symptoms of discomfort or sickness
magico-reliogus
illness and disease cuased by actions of higher power. health is a blessing or reward, illness is punishment
naturalistic or holistic
based on concept of balance
future time orientation
consistent with western medicine...prevention important because of its effect on future health
present orientation
problem now and treatment needed but treatment may not be needed in future....preventative actions not consistent
past orientation
view helath of present dependent on actions of past, either from past life, earlier life, or events or circumstances of one's ancestors
orientation to self
white americans...highly value autonomy and individualtiy , identify bound first to oneself
orientation to family
family more important than individual; most groups other than eupropean american
HIPAA rules are in direct conflict with this
intensity of relationships high context
High context
inqure about nurse's health and family and nurse is supposed to inquire about patients family well being.
body language is more important than spoken words
quality of relationship between nurse and person more important than the needs of the person
lintensity of relationships low context
culture of western medicine and nursing
task oriented encounters
individual identity not iportent
nonverbal communication infrequent, verblal communication used only when necessary