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96 Cards in this Set

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Health Related Fitness
includes activities performed at an intensity high enough to improve health (i.e. cardiorespiratory, endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition)
Physical Fitness
a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relate to the ability to perform physical activity
Physical Activity
bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure
subset of physical activity that is defined as "planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness
Skill related fitness
consists of activities that are designed to improve sports skills (i.e. speed, power, agility, balance, reaction time, coordination).
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
(also called cardio. endurance) is the ability to deliver and use oxygen to the cells and therefore perform physical work. This has the greatest impact on health.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
improves with regular participation in aerobic activities (i.e. walking, jogging, swimming, cycling)
With oxygen ( activities performed for long periods of time and with large muscle groups constitute aerobic activity)
Aerobic capacity
maximum oxygen consumption (V02 max).
Lifestyle Physical Activity Model - focuses on amount and time of physical activity needed to produce health benefits
Exercise Prescription Model - indicates that exercise needs tp be performed for a total of 20-60 minutes atleast 3 times a week at a heart rate between 60 and 90% of heart rate maximum.
Heart rate maximum
220 - age; x 0.60 = target intensity
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type of activity
Overload principle
In order for the cardiovascular system to become stronger and more efficient, it must be subjected to loads greater than normal (or those it is accustomed to)
Principle of progression
Gradual increases in intensity and duration of activity are best in order to increase fitness.
Principle of reversibility
"Use it or lose it"
Principle of Individuality
Everyone is different - some people have different physical capabilities
Top Reasons why people do not exercise regularly
Lack of time, motivation, poor health, pain while exercising, self conscious while exercising with others, bas weather, lack of good exercise facilities
Sedentary Living
Most common risk in the United States - over 60% of adults fail to exercise regularly
What is NOT a physiological change that can be caused by a lifestyle of regular physical activity?
increased blood pressure
Taking a walk during lunch is an example of how to overcome what barrier to regular exercise?
no time to exercise
What component of fitness has the greatest impact on health?
cardiorespiratory fitness
One of the known benefits of physical activity:
reduces risk of dying prematurely
True or False: Physical Activity is a known treatment for depression
True or False: To help avoid injury, you should try to keep your exercise intensity in your target heart rate zone.
True or False: Regular Physical Activity can reduce a person's risk of heart disease by reducing the amount of fat that is digested.
True or False: Washing a car is a good activity because it has a high intensity.
refers to how a person feels about their life and their ability to function in society; emphasizes individual responsibility for how a person manages their health
What is health?
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease
5 dimensions of Health and Wellness
Emotional/mental, Intellectual, Physical, Social, Spiritual
Physical Fitness
a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
Cardiovascular Endurance
Ability to sustain Med- High intensity exercise
Muscle Strength
Ability of a muscle/ group of muscles to produce a maximal force during a single contraction using proper form and technique
Muscle Endurance
Ability to contract your muscles over and over without becoming fatigued
The ability to move freely through a normal and full range of motion
Body Composition
Percentage of total body weight that is fat and lean (lean weight = muscles, organs, bones, water). Appropriate BC is important - almost as important as CV fitness
Motor Skills
The ability to move with skill in exercise and sports activities such as tennis, soccer, golf, and basketball
Social Wellness
= person's ability to interact with and have a positive meaningful relationships with others
Emotional/Mental Wellness
characterized by a generally happy mood or attitude - ability to handle daily stress in a positive and constructive way
Spiritual Wellness
Belief in a force greater than the individual - ability to commit to and live by certain standards and values
Intellectual Wellness is...
impacted by a person's willingness and ability to continue learning throughout their lifetime
Preventable Diseases
Heart Attacks, Cancer, and Strokes are all diseases of choice - and are top 3 killers in USA
Non- modifiable risk factors
Age, gender, race
Compression of morbidity
live healthy, longer life - perhaps by 10-20 years increased life expectance
"To become the best swimmer she can, Suzie should emphasize training how?"
improve all of the components of physical fitness equally
Which component of physical fitness probably has the biggest impact on health?
Cardiovascular endurance
To live a life of wellness, what should one do?
do the very best despite weaknesses, live a healthy lifestyle, try to improve the social physical, intellectual, spiritual, and emotional areas of his life
The best way to improve body composition and lose extra fat
do cardiovascular activity 5 times a week
Leading cause of death in America?
Heart Disease
Compression of morbidity
reducing the number of dysfunctional years at the end of a life-span due to illness or disease
Some chronic diseases are called diseases of choice because..
the choices we make partly determines our risk for the disease
greatest gain in reduction of risk comes when in an exercise program?
At the beginning
Factors that influence a person's ability or desire to change
predisposing factors, personal factors, reinforcing factors, enabling factors
Non -modifiable factors
Lifestyle factors (age, gender, race)
" the mortal body is less real and less important than the mind or spirit - the body is less than real"
the belief that a person must deny the body to free the spirit
one believes that God has human qualities such as body or passions
Cartesian Dualism
Descartes: the body as well as the spirit is real, but the body is a vastly different form of reality than the mind or spirit
"The identity of the body is not logically independent of the identity of the person whose body it is. A person is his body" ( Freidrich Nietzsche).
pleasure is the highest good: (Skinner taught - human behavior = response to stimuli) EAT, DRINK, AND BE MERRY
absolute metaphysical perspective
reality or truth is fixed, unchanging, constant, and not dependent on individual belief
relative metaphysical perspective
maintains that each individual is the author of one's own truth - truth is not universal - no external authority could be source of truth
absolute principles
principles not affected by human beings
personal security
unconditional self-acceptance
A person is a dual being of body, mind, and spirit. Both aspects of our being are composed of what?
Knowing the substance of a person's body, mind, spirit helps us understand that.....
the body and the spirit are different, but more alike than not
What do the body and spirit have in common?
both are matter; both are eternal
Each life has value! What does this knowledge affect?
Trusting our lives have value; caring about the purpose of our lives; wanting to live honestly; having hope for eternity
Worldly acceptance is often synonymous with what?
competition with others for acceptance; discouragement; personal insecurity; distress
Factors which determine worldly acceptance....
appearance, prestige or status, achievements, money, service
This enables a person to think in terms of inherent worth...
absolute truth
How does knowing our worth affect our physical fitness?
It motivates us to take care of ourselves
How does love affect our health?
It can strengthen one's immune system
The substance of a person's spirit is...
Inherent acceptance is an attitude toward self based on...
inherent worth
worldly acceptance is an attitude toward self based on
Truths about the nature of human life (this is a long one!)
If people do not comprehend the nature of God, they do not comprehend themselves; we came into the world that we might receive a body and present it pure before God in the celestial kingdom; All beings who have bodies have power over those who do not have bodies; the body is a marvelously perfectible instrument of the likewise perfectible mind and spirit
Muscular Endurance
one's ability to perform many repetitions with a sub-maximum resistance or hold a sub-maximum contraction for a long period of time
Muscular strength
one's ability to perform a single repetition with maximum resistance
concentric muscle movement
myosin proteins grab actin filaments, pulling together until overlapped; muscle shortens into tension needed to perform action: known as a shortening muscle contraction
eccentric muscle movement
myosin heads grab on and slow the actin filaments down as they move farther apart; force develops as muscle lengthens; slow controlled speed in this lengthening muscle contraction
isometric/static muscle movement
myosin grabs actin filaments so they do not move in either direction; muscle steady
occurs when muscle gets bigger as a result of building muscle fiber/storing more filaments
flexibility fitness
a joint's ability to move freely in every direction or, more specifically, through a full and normal range of motion
Research suggests that healthy adults achieve_____ of possible strength gains when they complete one set of exercise near or total fatigue, twice per week
When lifting weights, ACSM says that healthy adults should do _____repetitions to near or complete fatigue for most exercises
8 to 12
According to the information in this chapter, you should work which muscles at the beginning of your workout?
Larger muscles (chest, shoulders, back, hips, and upper legs)
how fast should you lift each weight?
a slow and controlled speed works best - slow and steady wins the race!
True or False: It is important to hold your breath during each lift since it makes it easier to lift the weight
To do an arm curl exercise (lifting the dumbbell to your shoulder) the biceps muscle does what type of contraction?
concentric contraction, shortens in length
Marathon runners usually have more of which type of muscle in their legs?
slow twitch and intermediate twitch
After each set of exercise ( for the healthy adult) you should rest about _______before working the same muscle group again.
1 to 3 minutes
ACSM says healthy adults should hold each static stretch for _______Seconds
10 to 30 seconds
True or False: A proper weight training program normally maintains or improves one's joint flexibility