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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
disease of the heart and blood vessels
cardiovascular system
a complex system consisting of the heart and blood vessels. It transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, metabolic wastes, and enzymes throughout the body and regulates temperature, the water levels of cells and the acidity levels of body components
atria
the two upper chambers of the heart, which recieve blood
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart, which pump blood through the blood vessels
arteries
vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other regions of the body
arterioles
branches of the arteries
capillaries
minute blood vessels that branch out from the arterioles; their thin walls permit exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products among body cells
veins
vessels that carry blood back to the heart from other regions of the body
venules
branches of the veins
sinoatrial node (SA node)
cluster of electricity generating cells that acts as a natural pacemaker for the heart
arteriosclerosis
a general term for thickening and hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis
condition characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of an artery
plaque
buildup of deposits in the arteries
metabolic syndrome
a group of three or more characteristics, including abdominal obesity and high blood pressure, that can cause metabolic problems that raise CVD risk
myocardial infarction (MI; heart attack)
a blockage of normal blood supply to an area in the heart
ischemia
reduced oxygen supply to a body part or organ
angina pectoris
chest pain occuring as a result of reduced oxygen flow to the heart
arrhythmia
an irregularity in heartbeat
fibrillation
a sporadic, quivering pattern of heartbeat that results in extreme inefficiency in moving blood through the cardiovascular system
congestive heart failure (CHF)
an abnormal cardiovascular condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping and blood flow; pooling blood leads to congestion in body tissues
congential heart disease
heart disease that is present at birth
rheumatic heart disease
a heart disease caused by untreated streptococcal infection of the throat
stroke
a condition occuring when the brain is damaged by disrupted blood supply
aneurysm
a weakened blood vessel that may bulge under pressure and in severe cases, burst
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Brief interruption of the blood supply to the brain that causes only temporary impairment; often an indicator of impending major stroke
low density lipoproteins (LDLs)
compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the body's cells and cause the cholesterol to build up on artery walls
high density lioproteins (HDLs)
compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body
triglycerides
the most common form of fat in the body; excess calories are converted into triglycerides and stored as body fat
hypertension
sustained elevated blood pressure
systolic pressure
the upper number in the fraction that measures blood pressure, indicating pressure on the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts
diastolic pressure
the lower number in the fraction that measure blood pressure, indicating pressure on the walls of the arteries during the relaxation phase of heart activity
electrocardiogram (ECG)
a record of the electrical activity of the heart; may be measured during a stress test
angiography
a technique for examining blockages in heart arteries
positron emission tomography (PET)
method for measuring heart activity by injecting a patient with a radioactive tracer that is scanned electronically to produce a three dimensional image of the heart and arteries
coronary bypass surgery
a surgical technqiue whereby a blood vessle is implanted to bypass a clogged coronary artery
angioplasty
a technique in which a catheter with a balloon at the tip is inserted into a clogged artery; the balloon is inflated to flatten fatty deposits against artery walls, which allows blood to flow more freely. A stent is typically inserted to keep the artery open
insulin
a hormone produced by the pancreas; required by the body for the metabolism of carbohydrates
diabetes mellitus
a disease in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body fails to use insulin effectively
hyperglycemia
elevated blood sugar levels
cancer
a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
neoplasm
a new growth of tissue that serves no physiological function and results from uncontrolled, abnormal cellular development
tumor
a neoplasmic mass that grows more rapidly than surrounding tissue
malignant
very dangerous or harmful; refers to a cancerous tumor
benign
harmless; refers to a noncancerous tumor
biopsy
microscopic examination of tissue to determine whether a cancer is present
metastasis
process by which cancer spreads from one area to different areas of the body
mutant cells
cells that differ in form, quality, or function from normal cells
carcinogens
cancer causing agents
oncogenes
suspected cancer causing genes
malignant melanoma
a virulent cancer of the melanocytes (pigment producing cells) of the skin
Pap test
a procedure in which cells taken from the cervical region are examined for abnormal cellular activity
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a device that uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computers to generate an image of internal tissues of the body for diagnostic purposes without the use of radiation
computed tomography scan (CT scan)
a scan by a machine that uses radiation to view internal organs not normally visible on X ray images
radiotheraphy
use of radiation to kill cancerous cells
chemotheraphy
use of drugs to kill cancerous cells
5 Warning Signs of Stroke
- Sudden weakness or numbness on one side of body
- vision weakness
-loss of speech, slur words
- sudden severe headaches
- unexplained dizziness
Difference between men and women when experiencing heart attacks
men experience extreme pain on thier chests, while experiencing heart attack. They feel naucious, sweat.

Women don't complain about same intensity of pain. They often deny having a heart attack because of sutle pain.
6 Causes of cancer
-Lifestyle: behavbiors you engage in when your young, decide your state of health years later.

-Biological: certain types of cancer run in families. Gender factor that men more susceptable to certain cancers while women are to other types.

-occupational: some jobs such as coal mining increase your risk for certain types of cancer.

-social/ psychological: high levels of stress can have detrimental impact on our health.

-Chemicals in food: pesticides used in our food can affect our health.

-Viruses: herpies virus, etc
3 Types of Cancer- classified through the type of tissue its affecting
- carcinomas: affect epothilius (other cells of skin) spread through circulatory system or lymph system. Very common. Includes breast, skin, and lung cancer. can be deadly. initially form solid tumors

- Sarcomas: occurs in the mesodermal, or middle layers of tissue. spread through circulatory system (blood). less common, but more deadly. Form solid tumors

-Lymphomas: develop in the lymphatic system and metastasize through the lymphatic system. ex: hodgkin's disease. lymphomas also form solid tumors
Lung cancer
-cough
-leading cause of cancer death for men and women
-surgery, radiation, and chemotheraphy all perscribed at some point
- ppl who develop lung cancer, usually smokers
Breast Cancer
-female breat cancer risk increase with age
- 2nd leading cause of cancer death for women
- symptoms include a lump or thickening in the breast. any distortion or pain in the nipple
- self examination important
Colan and Rectal Cancer
-3rd leading cause of cancer death
- inflamation in the bowl
- symptoms include changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding
- progress slowly, if detected early chances of survival higher
Prostate Cancer
- difficulty and pain in urination
- pain in lower back
- progresses slowly, if detected early encouraging
Skin Cancer
- diff. types some more deadly then others
- ABCD (changes regarding change in color of mole and size)
Ovarian Cancer
- doesn't give much warning
- more difficult to diagnose early because symptoms don't appear until the last stage
- One of most deadly cancers
Leukemia
- fatigue, nosebleeds, open wound or sore that won't heal, repeated infections.
- Some refered to as acute others as chronic
- Acute: progression is rapid
7 General warning symptoms for cancer
1) any change in bowel or bladder habits
2) sore that does not heal
3) any unusual bleeding or discharge
4) thickening or lump anywhere
5) indegestion (difficulty in swallowing)
6) any obvious change in a mole or wart
7) nagging cough, general horseness in throat
Standard types of treatment- treatment determined by the type of cancer and how far along the cancer is.
-surgery (if cancer cought early and is localized)
-radiation (use once cancer spreads)
-chemotherapy (used once cancer spreads)
types of cardiovascular disease
-atherosclerosis
-coronary heart disease
-chest pain (angina pectoris)
-irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
-congestive heart failure
-congenital and rheumatic heart disease
-stroke (cerebrovascular accident)