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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• Axial skeleton
head and spinal column (trunk)
• Appendicular skeleton
– extremities, shoulders and hips
Bones:
• Provide structure
• Give protection
• Serve as levers
• Store calcium
• Produce blood cells
Types of bone
– Compact
– Hard and dense
– Makes up the shaft and outer layers
– Spongy
– Contains numerous spaces
– Makes up ends and centers of bones
Bone cells
– Bone tissue is formed by osteoblasts.
– Bone tissue is broken down by cells referred as osteoclasts
Kinds of marrow
– Red marrow that produces blood cells
– Yellow marrow composed of fat
– The Periosteum
covers bones and contains osteoblasts and blood vessels that promotes nourishment and formation of new bone tissue
Structure of the Skeletal Muscles
Three types:
Skeletal
– named for its location - attached to bones - straited
– Skeletal muscle tissue can be made to contract or relax by conscious control (voluntary).

Smooth
Non-straited – involuntary – located in the walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels (aorta, small arteries, arterioles), the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder, uterus, and male and female reproductive tracts

Cardiac
– striated – involuntary – found in the walls of the heart.
Muscle-Skeletal Movements -
• Abduction – moving away from the midline of the body - hip
• Adduction – moving toward midline of the body – hip
• Circumduction – circular motion
• Inversion – moving inward - foot
• Eversion – moving outward - foot
• Extension – straightening the extremity at the joint and increasing the angle of the joint – ex. Elbow / knee
• Flexion – bending the extremity at joint and decreasing the angle of the joint – ex. Elbow / knee / hip
• Pronation – turning or facing downward – elbow
• Supination – turning or facing upward - elbow
• Protraction – moving forward
• Retraction – moving backward
Structure of the Joints
– Fibrous
– Sutures between skull bones, immovable
– Cartilaginous
– Joints between vertebrae – like the sternal one
– Joined by cartilage
– Synovial
– Shoulders, wrists, hips, knees, ankles
– Contain synovial fluid, a lubricant that promotes sliding movement
•Ligaments
–Bones in synovial joints are joined by ligaments
–Strong, dense bands of fibrous connective tissue.
–Synovial joints are enclosed by a fibrous capsule made of connective tissue - connects to
the periosteum of the bone.
– smooths and protects the bones that articulate with each other.
•Bursae
–Some synovial joints contain bursae – small sacs filled with synovial fluid that cushions the joint.
Osteoporosis
Thinking of bone tissue
• Uncontrollable risk factors
– Gender, age, body size, ethnicity, bone fractures
• Modifiable risk factors
– Lack of weight-bearing exercise
– low calcium
– anorexia nervosa – being in starvation mode
– low estrogen levels
– smoking, caffeine, alcohol, should be eliminated
– medication intake may affect bones

• Risk reduction for Osteoporosis:
• Increase physical activity
• increase calcium
• Increase Vitamin D intake by spending 20 minutes in sunlight daily
• Increase low estrogen levels by giving Estrogen replacement therapy
• Teach client how to prevent falls
• Avoid excessive caffeine, alcohol, steroids, smoking
• Men have denser bones than women
• Blacks have denser bones than whites
• Bone density of Chinese, Japanese, and Eskimo individuals below that of Caucasians
• Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine
• Test ROM of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine
• Test for back and leg pain: Lasegue’s Test:
Lasegue’s Test
Straight leg raising – dorsiflex foot
pain radiates from back down leg
• Measure leg length
Flexion and extension of cervical spine used in the testing for meningitis (stiff neck)
Temporomandibular Joint
TMJ - Open and close mouth
Problems with movement would cause difficulty chewing
• Wrists
- inspection, palpation, test ROM,
test for carpel tunnel syndrome - Phalen’s Test - CAUSES NUMBNESS, TINGLING, PAIN
• Hands and fingers -
inspection, palpation, test ROM
Palpating the Snuffbox for Pain - The hollow area on the back of the writs
at the base of the extended thumb
• Knees: inspection; palpation
• Test for swelling
• Ballottement test – fluid test – fluid suspected when knee is swollen
• Test for ROM – flexion and hyperextension
McMurray Test
•Test for pain and injury in knee
•c/o knee “giving in” or “locking”
•Flex one knee and hip and place thumb and index finger on either side of the knee.
•Slowly rotate the lower leg and foot laterally then extend knee note pain or clicking.
Repeat rotating medially note pain or clicking.