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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What two methods of surgical management could we use for angina?
How is angina diagnosed?
1) PE and hx
2) EKG and stress test.
3) Cardiac enzymes.
4) Cardiac cath.
5) Cardiac angiography.
What is the protective covering of the heart called?
The pericardium.
When we manage angina medically what do we use?
Nitroglycerin is the mainstay of treatment. We can also use beta-blockers (such as Inderal or Atenolol), calcium channel blockers (such as Verapamil or Diltiazem) and anticoagulant medications (ASA) and oxygen.
Is an MI permanent damage to the tissue?
When doing a PE and hx for the diagnosis of angina, what are we looking at?
Risk factors (genetics, diabetes, stress, congenital defects and obesity).

Pain characteristics (squeezing substernal pain. Tightness. Heavy feeling.

Shortness of air, pallor, anxiety.
What nursing interventions would we want to do with respect to alteration in tissue perfusion with respect to angina?
Monitor the BP. It should be in the desired range. If BP is too low, the tissue is not being perfused.

2) Monitor for dysrhythmias.

3) Prevent venous stasis.
What are some side effects of nitro?
Headache, hypotension. Should feel a tingling sensation under the tongue. Make sure to store nitro in a dry area. Also, it is light sensitive.
How do we manage angina?
Medically or surgically.
When doing an EKG and a stress test with respect to angina it will be ??
Normal at rest. Altered with angina.
What does the LAD feed?
The heart muscle itself.
When are abnormal rhythmas very common with an occlusion from an MI?
Inferior or posterior wall MI's (RCA).
When we do a cardiac angiography what are we doing?
A dye study which is looking at the blood flow of the heart itself.
What are the three layers of the cardiac tissue?
Endocardium; myocardium and epicardium.
What is an MI?
An occlusion of a vessel with resulting necrosis.
Unstable angina has an ______________ onset.
The RCA, LAD and circumflex feed what parts of the heart?
The RA, RV, SA node and AV node
When would we want to especially do a cardiac cath with respect to angina?
If angina switches from stable to unstable.
Stable angina is a ______________ onset.
What is angina due to?
Oxygen deprivation to the muscle. The supply can't keep up with the demand.
How much fluid is usually in the pericardial sac?
10-30 cc
What does the circumflex feed?
The heart muscle itself.
When would we not want to use a beta blocker (Inderal, atenolol)
In asthma, because it affects the beta receptors in the lungs.
Where can occlusions occur in the heart with respect to an MI?
In the:
Inferior or posterior wall (RCA)

Anterior wall MI (LAD).

Lateral wall MI (Lateral cfx)
What are some nursing diagnoses in relationship to angina?
1) Alteration in gas exchange.
2) Alteration in tissue perfusion.
Which is the most common site of an MI?
THe anterior wall (left anterior descending artery).