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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is the inferior orbital fissure?
between lateral wall and floor of orbit, leads to infraorbital foramen
What passes through the inferior orbital fissure? (3)
V-2 (maxillary)
infraorbital vessels
ascending branches of sphenopalatine ganglion
What passes through the foramen ovale? (2)
V-3 and lesser petrosal nerve
What is the petrotympanic fissure?
divides the external acoustic meatus
What passes through the petrotympanic fissure? (2)
chorda tympani
anterior tympanic artery
What is the chorda tympani nerve? (2)
Branch of VII (facial)
Taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
Presynaptic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers for sm and sl salivary glands
What nerve does the chorda tympani join? Where?
Lingual Nerve
Infratemporal fossa
What passes through the foramen lacerum? Passes over it?
Greater and deep petrosal nerves
Internal carotid
What passes through the internal acoustic meatus?
VII (facial) and VIII (vestibulocochlear)
What passes through the stylomastoid foramen?
VII
Through which foramina does CN VII pass?
stylomastoid foramen and internal acoustic meatus
What passes through the jugular foramen?
Internal jugular vein
IX
X
XI
What passes through the foramen magnum?
medulla
vertebral arteries
XI
What passes through the mandibular foramen?
inferior alveolar nerve, artery and vein
What passes through the mental foramen?
mental nerve, artery, vein
What passes through the foramen spinosum?
middle meningeal artery and vein
What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
III
IV
V-1
VI
superior ophthalmic vein
lacrimal, frontal, nasociliary nerves
What passes through the infraorbital foramen?
infraorbital nerve, artery, vein
What passes through the incisive canal?
nasopalatine nerve
What passes through the optic canal?
optic nerve
ophthalmic artery
List the four components of the ethmoid bone.
cribriform plate
crista galli
lateral plates
perpendicular plate
What are the lateral plates of the ethmoid bone?
The lateral plates contain: the ethoid sinuses
lamina papyracea
superior and middle nasal conchae
What is the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone?
superior part of the nasal septum
To what larger bone do the pterygoid plates belong?
sphenoid
What does the lateral pterygoid plate do?
Serves as attahcment for the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
What does the medial pterygoid plate do?
The hamulus (end) serves as an attachment site for the tensor veli palatine muscle
List the seven bones of the orbit
Frontal, Maxilla, Zygoma, Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Palatine (NOT nasal!)
What muscle passes deep to the zygomatic arch?
temporalis
What muscle originates from the zygoma/zygomatic arch?
masseter
List the boundaries of the infratemporal fossa:
-Anterior
-Posterior
-Medial
-Lateral
-Roof
-Floor
-posterior maxilla
-temporal bone (tympanic portion, mastoid, and styloid process)
-lateral pterygoid plate
-mandibular ramus
-greater wing of sphenoid (and foramen ovale)
-medial pterygoid muscle
What are the contents of the infratemporal fossa? (7)
Temporalis
Pterygoid muscles
Maxillary artery (incl. middle meningeal)
Pterygoid plexus of veins
Mandibular nerve (V-3)
Chorda tympani (VII)
Otic ganglion (IX)
List the boundaries of the pterygopalatine fossa:
-Anterior
-Posterior
-Medial
-Lateral
-Roof
-Floor
Maxilla
Pterygoid plates
Nasal fossa
Infratemporal fossa
Greater wing of sphenoid (opens into inferior orbital fissure)
Pyramidal process of palatine bone
What are the contents of the pterygopalatine fossa? (4)
Pterygopalatine (3rd) part of maxillary artery
Maxillary nerve (V-2)
Nerve of pterygoid canal
Pterygopalatine ganglion and branches
The pterygopalatine fossa is mostly enclosed. However, it communicates in five ways. List those ways.
Lateral - pterygomaillary fissure
Anterosuperior - inferior orbital fissure
Posterosuperior - foramen rotundum and pterygoid canal
Medial - sphenopalatine foramen
Inferior - palatine foramina
What passes through the pterygomaxillary fissure?
Posterior Superior Alveolar NAV
Maxillary Artery
What passes through the inferior orbital fissure (from the pterygopalatine fossa)?
CN V-2
What passes through the foramen rotundum and pterygoid canal?
CN V-2
Nerve of pterygoid canal
What forms the nerve of the pterygoid canal?
greater and lesser petrosal nerves
What travels through the sphenopalatine foramen?
Sphenopalatine artery and vein, nasopalatine nerve
What travels through the palatine foramina?
Greater and lesser palatine NAVs
Pterygoid plates of the sphenoid articulate with what?
Maxillary tuberosity (posterior palate)
What passes through the incisive foramen?
descending palatine vessels
nasopalatine nerves of V-3
What passes through the palatine foramina?
descending palatine vessels and anterior palatine nerve of V-3
What are the boundaries of the nasal cavity?
floor - hard palate
roof - cribriform, anterior body of sphenoid, nasal spine of frontal bone, nasal bones, lateral nasal cartilages
lateral - nasal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxilla, palatine, inferior conchal bones
medial - nasal septum
external - two nasal bones, cartilages
What provides sensory innervation to the nasal cavity?
V-2 (nasopalatine, infraorbital, greater palatine)
v-1 (anterior ethmoidal nerve)
What provides parasympathetic innervation to the nasal cavity?
branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion supply secretory glands
What innervates olfactory epitherlium?
CN I
What provides the blood supply to the nasal cavity?
sphenopalatine branch of maxillary artery
anterior ethmoidal branch of ophthalmic artery
septal branch of superior labial branch of facial artery
Where is yellowish olfactory epithelium found?
superior nasal conchae and upper third of septum
To where does CN I project?
primary olfactory cortex (pyriform cortex)
What is the relationship between cochae and meatus?
Meatus is below its respective conchae (e.g. inferior meatus is below inferior nasal conchae)
List the six components of the nasal septum.
Vertical plate of ethmoid
Vomer
Nasal crest of maxilla
Nasal crest of palatine bone
Nasal crest of sphenoid bone
Septal cartilage
What is Kiesselbach's Plexus?
The anastomosis of five arteries:
Sphenopalaine
Greater palatine (of maxillary)
Superior labial (of facial)
Anterior ethmoid (of ICA)
Lateral nasal branches of facial artery
In what area do most cases of epistaxis arise?
Kiesselbach's Plexus
What lines the maxillary sinus?
the Sniderian membrane
Where does the nasolacrimal apparatus drain?
inferior meatus
Where do the frontal sinuses drain?
hiatus semilunaris of the middle meatus
Where do the maxillary sinuses drain?
ostium (w/in hiatus semilunaris of the middle meatus)
Where does the anterior ethmoid sinus drain?
hiatus semilunaris of the middle meatus
Where does the middle ethmoid sinus drain?
ethmoid bullae of the middle meatus
Where does the posterior ethmoid sinus drain?
superior meatus
What is a good surgical approach to the pituitary?
through the sphenoid sinus
The middle meatus contains openings for which sinuses?
frontal, anterior and middle ethmoidal, maxillary
What are the components of the external nose?
nasal bones, lateral cartilages, septal cartilages, alar cartilages (greater and lesser x2)
What muscle attaches to the coronoid process?
temporalis
What type of cartilage is nasal cartilage?
hyaline
What is the path of the mandibular canal?
traverses mandibular body and opens at mental foramen
What passes through the mandibular foramen?
IAN (of V-3)
Inferior alveolar artery and vein
What passes through the mental foramen?
Mental nerve
Incisive branch (of IAN)
What does the incisive branch supply?
pulp chambers of the anterior teeth and adjacent mucous membrane
What passes through the jugular formaen?
CN IX, X, XI
Superior bulb of internal jugular
inferior petrosal / sigmoid sinuses
meningeal branches of ascending pharyngeal / occipital arteries
What passes through the condylar canal?
Emissary vein that passes from the sigmoid sinus to vertebral veins
What passes through the mastoid foramen?
Mastoid emissary vein from sigmoid sinus and meningeal branch of occipital artery
What is the foramen cecum?
Passage for vessels during fetal development; insignificant postnatally
The sphenoidal crests end in what?
the anterior clinoid processes
What forms the border between the middle and posterior cranial fossae?
Laterally - superior portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone
Medially - dorsum sellae
List the five layers of the scalp
SCALP
Skin
Connective Tissue
Aponeurosis
Losse connective tissue
Pericranium
What is the epicranial aponeurosis?
a tendinous sheet that covers the calvaria, serves as attachment for frontal/occipital bellie of the occipitofrontalis muscle and superior auricular muscle --> musculoaponeurotic epicranius
What is the pericranium?
it forms the external periosteum of the neurocranium; continuous with fibrous tissue in the cranial sutures
What is one difference between CSF and blood?
CSF contains less proteins
What layer of the scalp is considered the "danger area"?
the loose connective tissue
Why is the loose connective considered dangerous?
Pus or blood can travel easily in it; infection can pass into the cranial cavity through emissary veins
Where can a scalp infection spread / not spread and why?
1. A scalp infection cannot spread to the neck because the occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis attaches to the occipital bone/mastoid parts of temporal bone
2. It cannot spread laterally beyond the zygomatic bone because the epicranial aponeurosis is continuous with the temporal fascia
3. It can enter the eyelids and root of the nose becuase the frontal belly of the occipitofrontalis inserts into the skin and subcutaneous tissue (not bone)
What are the anterior / posterior attachment points for the cerebral falx?
anterior - frontal crest / crista galli
posterior - internal occipital protuberance
What passes through the tentorail notch?
the brainstem (duh...)
List the four dural infoldings:
cerebral falx
cerebellar tentorium
cerebellar falx
sellar diaphram
What lines the dural venous sinuses?
endothelium
What are the lateral venous lacunae?
lateral expansions of the superior sagittal sinus
What forms the straight sinus?
the union of the inferior sagittal sinus and the great cerebral vein
What connect at the confluence of the sinuses?
superior sagittal sinus
transverse sinus
straight sinus
occipital sinus
The sigmoid sinuses continue as what?
IJV
Where is the cavernous sinus and where does it drain into?
the cavernous sinus basically surrounds the sella turcica and drains into the sigmoid sinus via the superior and inferior petrosal sinuses
What drains into the cavernous sinus?
the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins
superficial middle cerebral vein
sphenoparietal sinuses
What passes through the cavernous sinus along the lateral border?
CN III
CN IV
CN V-1
CN V-2
Carotid and VI are there too. VI crosses the carotid
Describe the innervation of the dura:
primarily by CN V, but some from CN X and XII, and some from the upper three cervical nerves
Where are pain fibers most numerous in the dura and how is pain perceived?
pain fibers are most numerous around arteries and veins, and pain is generally referred as a headache in the region the associated nerve supplies
Which nerves are associated with the midbrain?
CN III and IV
What cranial nerve is associated with the pons?
CN V
Which cranial nerves are associated with the medulla?
CN IX, X, XII
Which cranial nerves are associated with the pons-medulla junction
CN VI - VIII