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91 Cards in this Set

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Dentin Dysplasia
Dentin dysplasia type I (rootless teeth);

Dentin dysplasia type II (coronal dentin dysplasia); thistle tube shape of pulp chamber
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attrition
loss of tooth structure due to tooth-to-tooth contact from mastication and occlusion (normal wear and tear)
attrition accelerated by
accelerated by poor quality or absent enamel, premature edge-to-edge occlusion, intraoral abrasives, erosion, and grinding habits
Internal resorption is caused by
cells located in dental pulp. Rare, usually follows injury to pulpal tissues.
dentin is eatin away (dentinoplasts)
External resorption is caused by
cells in the periodontal ligament. Most patients are likely to have root resorption on one or more teeth
Visible environmental enamel defects can be classified into one of three patterns:
1. Enamel hypoplasia
2. Diffuse opacities of enamel
3. Demarcated opacities (spotty) of enamel
Enamel hypoplasia
pits, grooves, or larger areas of missing enamel
Diffuse opacities of enamel
variations in translucency or normal thickness; increased white opacity with no clear boundary with adjacent normal enamel

Book: the affected enamel is of normal thickness
Demarcated opacities (spotty) of enamel
areas of decreased translucence, increased opacity, and a sharp boundary with adjacent enamel; normal thickness
common pattern of enamel loss due to high fever (measels, chicken pox, scarlet fever)

age 2

age 4
age 2: Horizontal rows of pits or diminished enamel are present on the anterior teeth and first molars. The enamel loss is bilaterally symmetric, and the location of the defects correlates well with the developmental stage of the affected teeth
age 4 : cuspids, bicuspids and 2nd molars are affected in similiar way
turner's hypoplasia

caused by two different things

most frequently affects
1. caused by periapical inflammatory disease of the overlying deciduous tooth. The altered tooth is called a Turner's tooth

it can also be caused by trauma to decidious teeth causing dilaceration (a bend in the tooth root)or disorganization of the bud resembling a complex odontoma

2. perm bicuspids due to caries in the primary molars
hypoplasia casued by antineoplastic therapy (radiation or chemo)
severity related to
-age at treatment
-form of therapy
-dose (.72 grey all that is needed 10X less than normal)
-field of radiation
antineoplastic therapy defects include
affects both enamel and dentin
-hypodontia (less teeth)
-microdontia (small teeth)
-radicular (root) hypoplasia
-enamel hypoplasia
Mulberry molars
constricted occlusal tables with disorganized surface anatomy resembling surface of a mulberry

Caused by syphilitic hypoplasia
hutchinson's incisors
crowns that are shaped like straight-edge screwdrivers,

incisal edge has a notch

casued by syphilitic hypoplasia
Visible environmental enamel defects can be classified into one of three patterns:
1. Enamel hypoplasia
2. Diffuse opacities of enamel
3. Demarcated opacities (spotty) of enamel
attrition
Loss of tooth structure caused by tooth-to-tooth contact during occlusion and mastication

Interproximal contact points also affected
Over time, interproximal loss can result in shortening of arch length

accelerated by poor enamel quality and grinding
4 causes of postdevelopmental loss of tooth structure
1. attrition
2. abrasion
3. erosion
4. abfraction
Enamel hypoplasia
pits, grooves, or larger areas of missing enamel
abrasion
Pathologic loss of tooth structure caused by an external agent

toothbrush is #1 contributer
also can cause notches by pipes and toothpicks
Diffuse opacities of enamel
variations in translucency or normal thickness; increased white opacity with no clear boundary with adjacent normal enamel

Book: the affected enamel is of normal thickness
Demarcated opacities (spotty) of enamel
areas of decreased translucence, increased opacity, and a sharp boundary with adjacent enamel; normal thickness
erosion
Loss of tooth structure by chemical reaction, not that associated with bacteria (caries)

dietary or external (usually acidic in nature)
perimolysis
Erosion from dental exposure to gastric secretions
common pattern of enamel loss due to high fever (measels, chicken pox, scarlet fever)

age 2

age 4
age 2: Horizontal rows of pits or diminished enamel are present on the anterior teeth and first molars. The enamel loss is bilaterally symmetric, and the location of the defects correlates well with the developmental stage of the affected teeth
age 4 : cuspids, bicuspids and 2nd molars are affected in similiar way
turner's hypoplasia

caused by two different things

most frequently affects
1. caused by periapical inflammatory disease of the overlying deciduous tooth. The altered tooth is called a Turner's tooth

it can also be caused by trauma to decidious teeth causing dilaceration (a bend in the tooth root)or disorganization of the bud resembling a complex odontoma

2. perm bicuspids due to caries in the primary molars
hypoplasia casued by antineoplastic therapy (radiation or chemo)
severity related to
-age at treatment
-form of therapy
-dose (.72 grey all that is needed 10X less than normal)
-field of radiation
antineoplastic therapy defects include
affects both enamel and dentin
-hypodontia (less teeth)
-microdontia (small teeth)
-radicular (root) hypoplasia
-enamel hypoplasia
Mulberry molars
constricted occlusal tables with disorganized surface anatomy resembling surface of a mulberry

Caused by syphilitic hypoplasia
hutchinson's incisors
crowns that are shaped like straight-edge screwdrivers,

incisal edge has a notch

casued by syphilitic hypoplasia
attrition
Loss of tooth structure caused by tooth-to-tooth contact during occlusion and mastication

Interproximal contact points also affected
Over time, interproximal loss can result in shortening of arch length

accelerated by poor enamel quality and grinding
4 causes of postdevelopmental loss of tooth structure
1. attrition
2. abrasion
3. erosion
4. abfraction
abrasion
Pathologic loss of tooth structure caused by an external agent

toothbrush is #1 contributer
also can cause notches by pipes and toothpicks
erosion
Loss of tooth structure by chemical reaction, not that associated with bacteria (caries)

dietary or external (usually acidic in nature)
perimolysis
Erosion from dental exposure to gastric secretions
abfraction
the loss of tooth structure that results from repeated tooth flexure caused by occlusal stresses

narrow V shaped wedges most often on mandible in cervical area
Internal resorption

what is it when it affects crown
caused by cells located in dental pulp. Rare, usually follows injury to pulpal tissues.

When it affects the coronal pulp, crown can display pink discoloration (pink tooth of Mummery)
External resorption
caused by cells in the periodontal ligament

is very common in the form of root resorption
extrinsic discoloration
Arise from surface accumulation of exogenous pigment (color from outside source)
intrinsic discoloration
Something incorporated into tooth structure (underlying dentin)

Secondary to endogenous factors that discolor underlying dentin
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Günther’s disease)
an AR disorder of metabolism that results in increased synthesis and excretion of porphyrins
-an intrinsic discoloration problem

the teeth are red!
Eruption
the continuous process of movement of a tooth from developmental location to functional location
Impacted
teeth that cease to erupt due to physical obstruction
Embedded
teeth that cease to erupt due to lack of eruptive force
Ankylosis

peak time frame

most common tooth
teeth that cease to erupt due to anatomic fusion of tooth with alveolar bone after emergence
-peak time is 7-8 yrs old
-most common is primary 1st molar
angles of impacted teeth
mesioangular, distoangular, vertical, horizontal and inverted
Anodontia
total lack of tooth development. Rare;
most cases occur in hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
Hypodontia
-lack of development of one or more teeth
-More common in permanent teeth, third molars most affected
-More frequent in females than males
Oligodontia
lack of development of six or more teeth.

More than 5
Hyperdontia
-development of increased number of teeth.
-supernumeraries
-Prevalence 1-3% of pop.
-More common in males and usually develops by age 20.
-more common in maxilla
mesiodens
extra incisor in midline
(supernumerary)
ectodermal dysplasia causes what
-results is hypodontia
-teeth are made of ectodermal tissue
Paramolar
posterior supernumerary tooth situated lingually or buccally to a molar tooth
Dental transposition
normal teeth erupted in an inappropriate pattern
Natal teeth

what disease can be associated with natal teeth
teeth present in newborns
(85% mandibular incisor region)
-Riga-Fede disease (ulceration of ventral tongue associated with breast-feeding)
Microdontia
small teeth
-More common in females
-peg lateral
-Increased in Down’s, pituitary dwarfism
-can be associated with hypodontia
Macrodontia
large teeth
-more common in males
-can be associated with hyperdontia
Double teeth
two separate teeth exhibiting union by dentin and sometimes pulps (fusion).
Concrescence
union of two teeth by cementum without confluence of dentin.

requires no therapy unless interfering with eruption
Gemination
single enlarged tooth or joined (double) tooth in which tooth count is normal when this tooth is counted as one.

Is hard to separate from double teeth
Fusion
single enlarged tooth or joined (double) tooth in which the tooth count is short one when this tooth is counted as one.
Talon cusp (anterior dens evaginatus)
additional cusp located on surface of anterior tooth -extending at least half the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the incisal edge
-Usually projects from the lingual surface.
Dens evaginatus
on posterior teeth
-cusp-like elevation of enamel located in central groove or lingual ridge of buccal cusp of permanent premolar or molar teeth

rare in whites
more common in asians
Dens Invaginatus
Deep surface invagination of crown or root that is lined by enamel
Radicular dens invaginatus
altered enamel forms a surface invagination into dental papilla
Ectopic enamel
presence of enamel in unusual places
Enamel pearls
hemispheric structures projecting from the surface of the root,

found mostly on the roots of maxillary molars.
Cervical enamel extensions
on buccal surface of root overlying bifurcation.
Buccal bifurcation cyst
inflammatory cyst developed along buccal surface over the bifurcation
Taurodontism
Enlargement of body and pulp chamber of multirooted tooth
Hypercementosis

what does it look like on x-ray

factors of formation
-Non-neoplastic deposition of excessive cementum continuous with the normal radicular cementum
-Thickness or blunting of root radiographically, localized or generalized
-Local or systemic factors; loss of antagonist tooth, occlusal trauma, inflammation, Paget’s disease
Dilaceration
Abnormal angulation or bend in root (or commonly the crown)
Amelogeneis Imperfecta
Group of conditions that demonstrate developmental alterations in enamel structure in the absence of a systemic disorder
4 main subtypes of amelogenesis imperfecta
Type I hypoplastic form; generalized/localized, smooth/pitted/rough, AD, AR. X-linked

Type II hypomaturation form; pigmented/non-pigmented, diffuse/snow capped; AD, AR, X-linked

Type III Hypocalcified form: diffuse AD/AR

Type IV Hypomaturation-hypoplastic or hypoplastic-hypomaturation with taurodontism; AD
Hypoplastic Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Inadequate deposition of enamel matrix

Generalized pattern – pinpoint sized pits scattered across surface of teeth

Localized pattern – horizontal rows of pits, linear depression or one large area of hypoplastic enamel

Autosomal dominant smooth pattern – smooth surface, enamel is thin, hard, and glossy

X-linked dominant smooth pattern – alternating zones of normal and abnormal enamel related to active X chromosomes
Hypomaturation Amelogenesis Imperfecta

3 patterns
Enamel matrix laid down appropriately and begins to mineralize, but there is defective maturation of enamel’s crystal structure; normal shape but abnormal mottled, opaque white-brown color

Pigmented pattern (AR) – surface enamel is mottled and brown

X-linked pattern – deciduous are opaque white; permanent are yellow-white that darken with age

Snow-capped pattern – zone of white opaque enamel on incisal or occlusal surface of the crown
Hypocalcified Amelogenesis Imperfecta
Enamel matrix laid down appropriately but no significant mineralization occurs (very soft enamel)

Teeth yellow-brown to orange
Hypomaturation/hypoplastic Amelogenesis Imperfecta

2 types
Enamel hypoplasia combined with hypomaturation.

Hypomaturation-hypoplastic pattern – primary defect is enamel hypomaturation; mottled yellow-white to yellow-brown.

Hypoplastic-hypomaturation pattern – primary defect is enamel hypoplasia (thin enamel).
Dentinogenesis Imperfecta
-Hereditary developmental abnormality of the dentin
-All teeth in both dentitions affected
-Shell teeth normal thickness enamel, extremely thin dentin, enlarged pulps
Dentin Dysplasia
-Dentin dysplasia type I (rootless teeth)
-Dentin dysplasia type II (coronal dentin dysplasia); thistle tube shape of pulp chamber
Regional Odontodysplasia (Ghost Teeth)
-not genetic
-Extremely thin enamel and dentin surrounding an enlarged radiolucent pulp