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59 Cards in this Set

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Dura Mater
vein-like tissues transporting blood from brain to jugular veins and circulatory system
Arachnoid Mater
seperates dura mater from subarachnoid space
Subarachnoid Space
contains CSF's
Pia Mater
is in direct contact to brain tissue/cerebral cortex
Frontal Bone
Forehead
Parietal Bone
Right and Left
Temporal Bone
Temple
Maxilla
Upper jaw
Mandible
Lower jaw
Zygoma
Cheek bone
Occipital Bone
Strongest Bone, The back of you skull
Nasal Bone
Above your nose
Coup Injury
injury @ site of impact, when a resting, moveable head receives a blow
Contra Coup
injury opposite to site of impact, when a head in motion contacts an immovable object (ground)
Acceleration/Deceleration
a shear or stretchin of nerves, probably in rotatioin
Signs/Symptoms of Skull Fracture
Visible deformity
Deep laceration or severe bruise to scalp
Palpable depression
Unequal pupils
Discoloration
Raccoon eyes/Battle’s sign
Bleeding from nose/ear
Loss of smell/vision
Unconsciousness for > 2 minutes
Facial Fractures - Zygomatic
Flat or depressed cheek bone w/ swelling, ecchymosis
Ice but avoid pressure, physician referral
Facial protection for 3-4 months
Facial Fractures - Nasal
Flattened, asymmetrical nose shape
Ecchymosis, nasal obstruction
Epistaxis (nosebleed)
Apply pressure/ice to nasal bone
Refer to physician w/bleeding > 5 minutes of pressure/ice/plugs
Facial Fractures - Maxillary
Long face, epistaxis, ecchymosis, malocclusion, nasal deformity
Maintain open airway, ice, physician referral
Facial Fractures - Madibullar
Pain, discoloration, swelling, facial distortion, oral bleeding, changes in speech
Maintain open airway, immobilize jaw, ice, physician referral
Epidural Hematoma
Outside dura mater
Rare in sports
Blow to side of head w/associated skull fracture
Initial LOC, lucid interval, decline of mental status w/in 10-20 minutes
Headache, nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, ipsilateral dilated pupil, contralateral weakness
Subdural Hematoma
3x more likely that Epidural Hematoma
Deep to dura mater
Acceleration forces
Rapid, arterial bleeding w/LOC (acute) vs. slow venous bleeding and delay of symptoms (chronic)
Slow collection of blood w/deterioration of consciousness (simple) vs. rapid accumulation w/clot & intracranial pressure (complicated)
Focal Cerebral Injury Management
Activate EMS
Maintain ABC’s
Early diagnosis
Surgery
Concussion
vacant stare
delayed verbal/motor responses
cant focus
slurred speech
noticeable disorientation
emotions out or proportion
any loss of consciousness
Concussion Evaluation
Mental Status - concentration, memory
Neurological Tests - strength, sensation, agility
Exertion Testing - sprint, push up, sit up, knee bends
Concussion - Grade 1
Transient confusion
No LOC
Concussive sx’s/mental status abnormalities resolve in < 15 minutes
Concussion - Grade 2
Transient confusion
No LOC
Sx’s/abnormalities last > 15 minutes
Amnesia
Retrograde - memory loss of events before injury
Anterograde - memory loss of events after injury
Concussion - Grade 3
Any LOC
a) Brief (seconds)
b) Prolonged (minutes)
Post Concussion Syndrome
persistent headaches, blurred vision, memory loss, iritability
Second Impact Syndrome
2nd head injury before symptoms from initial injury have resolved, intracranial pressure increses causing collapse, possibly coma/death
Concussion Management - Grade 1
-remove from contest
-examine immediately and at 5 min intervals
-return if sx resolution w/in 15 min
Concussion Management - Grade 2
-remove w/out return
-frequent exams
-re-exam the next day
-neurologial exam after 1 week
Concussion Management - Grade 3
-move supporting the neck
-neuro exam performed with ergency
-hospitalization
Guidelines for return
1 - 15 min or less
multiple grade 1 - 1 week off
2 - 1 week off
multiple grade 2 - 2 weeks off
3 (brief LOC) - 1 week
Prolonged LOC - 2 weeks
Multiple grade 3 - 1 month
Cornea
clear covering that allows light to pass through
Anterior Chamber
space between iris and cornea filled with clear fluid
Iris
surrounds pupil and give the eye color
Lens
sits behind the pupil and focuses light on retina
Vitreous body
clear gel filled chamber
Optic Nerve
crosses behind eyes, connects retina to brain
Pupil
protective layer of the eye
Periorbital ecchymosis
black eye - ice it
Foreign bodies in eye
remove, inspect for abrasion/laceration
Sty/Conjuctivitis
infection of eyelash/inflammation of lining between eyelid and eyeball
Detached Retina
floaters, light flashes
Blowout fracture
double vision, downward displacement of the eye, cant look up
trauma causing increased orbital pressure which fractures the oribital floor
Detached retina
floaters, light flashes
Corneal adrasion/laceration
abrasion - patch and use ointment
laceraton - no pressure, avoid head down or prone position
enamel
outermost tooth layer
dentin
bulk of tooth; hard tissue of second layer
pulp cavity
innermost portion of tooth where arterial, venous and nerve supply are found
Gingiva
gum; overlaying the roots and base of tooth
crown
visible part of tooth
Alveolar bone
tooth socket
Lateral Displacement
tooth pushed back or pulled forward
-reposition, stabilize by biting on towel
Intruded tooth
pushed into gum
-dont reposition tooth
Extruded tooth
tooth hangs down or raised up
-reposition in socket
-stabilize by biting on towel
Tooth Avulsion
tooth pulled out - dont handle brush or sterilize
-rinse with water
-re implant and bite on a towel for a 90% sucess rate w/in 1st 30 min
-re implant after 2 hours, 95% failure to re implant tooth
-if you cant replant it, place in saline solutioin, cold milk, under athelet's tongue, in cup of water
Tooth Fracture
if broken in half, save broken part and bring to detist
-stabilize what is attached by biting on a towel