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73 Cards in this Set

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chromosomes that are not sex-linked
the building blocks of chromosomes and the materialthat is copied from cell to cell. Genes are composed of DNA and the DNA tells the gene whether to turn on or off.
Contain DNA and are copied from generation to generation through meiosis (sex cells) and from cell to cell through mitosis (somatic cells). There are 46 chromosomes in every human cell except sex cells which have 23 chromosomes.
Paired genes on a chomosome that are responsible for a particular trait such as hair color, eye color etc. Not all traits are governed by one allele.
the alleles are the same.
the alleles are different
Dominant allele:
an allele that always expresses its trait whether homo- or heterozygous
Recessive allele:
an allele that will only express its trait if it is homozygous recessive
Your fiancé turns out to be autosomal heterozygous recessive as well. What are the chances a child will express this trait? What if you were autosomal homozygous recessive and your fiancé was autosomal homozygous dominant?
25% in the first case, 100% in the second.
2. Your girl friend just found out that the problems her baby has is due to a congenital defect. She’s very worried about having more children. What can you tell her about what may have happened and her worries?
Congenital defects occur in utero and are not inheritable. There are some ways to prevent some of the known causes, like taking folic acid early in pregnancy to prevent spina bifida.
3. There is a person in one of your classes who you are not sure is a man or woman. What might explain this?
In some cases there is a missing sex chromosome, an extra X chromosome or a sex reversal where hormone activity is affected so inappropriate anatomy develops
Which is NOT true?

Sickle-cell trait may confer resistance to malaria

Genetic testing is highly recommended if a child is born with congenital defects

Klinefelter's syndrome results in immature testes and female secondary sex characteristics

Down's Syndrome occurs more frequently in children born of older mothers
Congenital issues are not related to genetics so testing would be of no benefit
Which of the following would be of greater interest to public health workers?

sex-linked inherited diseases
autosomal dominant diseases
autosomal recessive diseases
congenital diseases
Yes, public health focuses on diseases that have greater potential for and benefit from prevention and these diseases are often associated with contaminants, life style or nutrition that can be addressed at the societal level.
You are autosomal homozygous recessive for a certain trait. You plan to marry and thought it would be a good idea to have genetic testing. Your fiancé turns out to be autosomal homozygous dominant. What are the chances a child will express this trait?
From throughout the body, blood flows through veins into the
1. Superior and Inferior vena cavae, which empty into the
2. RIGHT atrium (upper chamber of the heart).
3. The tricuspid valve (3 flaps or cusps) then opens to allow blood to flow into the
4. RIGHT ventricle during diastole and closes on systole to prevent blood from backing up into the atrium again. From the RIGHT ventricle (lower chamber of the heart) the blood flows through the
5. Pulmonary valve into
6. Pulmonary artery (remember, arteries take blood away from the heart), which carries the blood to the
7. Lungs. There, it releases carbon dioxide and water and picks up oxygen. The
8. Pulmonary vein (veins take blood to the heart) deliver the oxygenated blood to the
9. LEFT atrium (upper chamber of the heart), then it passes through the
10. mitral valve (two flaps or cusps) and into the
11. LEFT ventricle (lower chamber of the heart). Finally, with a final systolic pump, blood passes through the
12. Aortic valve, into the
13. Aorta, the largest artery in the body, and out to the rest of the body.The two sides of the heart are divided by the
14. cardiac septum. The stimulous that initiates the heart beat originates in the wall of the right atrium in a structure called the sinoatrial node.
the vessels that carry blood away from the heart (remember that artery and away both begin with an “a”) and supply the heart itself with blood (no exception to the "away" concept, the blood leaves the heart and it supplies organs and tissues; in this case, the heart is just another one of those organs that is supplied.
Myocardial infarct:
heart attack
the reduction of blood flow and oxygen to tissues
Arterial plaque:
an accumulation of monocytes and fatty deposits that form on artery walls.
the smallest vessels where nutrients, oxygen and waste are exchanged with tissue and that connect venules and arterioles
Sinoatrial node:
the area on the heart that initiates the electrical impulse of the heart beat
the contractions of the heart, while blood is ejected from the heart
the period of rest of the heart, while it fills with blood.
Aortic valve:
a valve that prevents blood from back-flowing into the left ventricle from the aorta
Pulmonary valve:
a valve that prevents blood from back-flowing into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery
mitral valve:
the dual cusped one-way valve between the left atrium and left ventricle assuring blood flow in one direction.
tricuspid valve:
the three cusped one-way valve between the right atrium and right ventricle assuring blood flow in one direction.
the double-layered outer lining of the heart
the inner lining of the heart
the vessels that carry blood back to the heart
the muscular layer of the heart that forms the chambers of the heart
1. Disney just opened a new amusement park, Body Land! You’ve applied as a guide on the Heart Lung Expedition ride. No problem, you say, I know my cardiopulmonary circulation! Impress the interviewer with your knowledge.
Superior and Inferior vena cava, RIGHT atrium, tricuspid valve, RIGHT ventricle, Pulmonary artery, Lungs, Pulmonary vein, LEFT atrium, mitral valve, LEFT ventricle, Aortic valve, Aorta.
a local dilation or bulging of a vessel, which can burst and cause hemorrhaging
a traveling blood clot or thrombus
a blood clot
a narrowing or constriction
Dys (difficult), pnea (breath, air). Difficult breathing
Cyan (blue), osis (condition). A blue color of the skin or tissue resulting from a lack of oxygen.
Angina pectoris:
chest pain as a result of transient ischemia
2. You are in anatomy lab. You’ve just cut through the heart. “Ah-ha,” you exclaim, “there are the three layers of the heart”! Your lab partner has to ask you b/c he’s not as smart as you. Please help him out.
Endocardium (lining), myocardium (the muscular layer of the heart), pericardium (the dual-layered covering of the heart).
3. You feel your pulse, can hear the lub-dub, lub-dub of your heart beat. Explain what is happening using the terms diastole, systole, and sinoatrial node.
The sinoatrial node is the area of the heart that begins the heart beat and is controlled by hormones (acetylcholine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) and autonomically stimulated nerves. The SA node causes the ventricles to contract which is the systole phase, followed by the resting phase, diastole while the heart fills again with blood.
4. Sometimes when people aren’t informed, they use the terms “vein” and “artery” interchangeably. You know better. What’s the difference?
Veins: larger lumen, thinner walls, valves to prevent back-flow, less elasticity, less muscle, collapse when empty. Arteries: muscular, elastic walls that can constrict and dilate.
5. Your elderly friend says her doctor just told her she has hardening of the arteries. With this information, what can you tell her about her blood vessels, blood pressure and risk of stroke or heart attack?
Arteriosclerosis is a thickening and loss of elasticity that causes increased blood pressure. This occurs as a result of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty deposits accumulate on the artery walls. In an attempt to respond, the muscular layer thickens, narrowing the lumen, reducing elasticity (this is arteriosclerosis) and reducing blood flow. Monocytes accumlate under the inner lining and form plaques. If it gets bad enough, ischemia may result. This occurs when blood flow to tissues is reduced by the plaques. This can be dangerous if it is in the heart tissue or brain. It can cause a heart attack or stroke. Because the arteries in arteriosclerosis are hardened and non-elastic, it is more difficult for blood to pass through, which increases the blood pressure, which in turn causes arteriosclerosis, so it is a vicious cycle that exacerbates itself.
6. Your friend tells you that she’s also been having some pain in her chest and is sure it is a heart attack. Is it?
Could be, but it may only be angina pectoris, a narrowing of coronary arteries, which can be alleviated with nitroglycerin that dilates arteries.
7. Your 50 year old uncle just had a heart attack. He’s concerned, but has a very good doctor. He knows, with his help, he’ll likely live another 20 years. What are his odds of living another 10 years?What about one year?
80% survive 1 day, 78% survive 1 week, 60% survive 1 year and 25% survive 10 years
8. Explain why the symptoms of right and left-sided congestive heart failure differ.
Blood enters the heart from the right side. Therefore, if the right side is not functioning well, then blood will back up in veins. If it is left-sided heart failure, then the blood coming in from the lungs backs up, causing pulmonary edema.
9. Your friend has to take an antibiotic before each dental visit due to her mitral valve prolapse. You know that might be all that is necessary to address her problems, but you also know that should it not improve, ultimately she may need another type of treatment. What is it?
Valve replacement
10. You were sick a couple of weeks ago with a strep infection, and are sick again. Your father, a nurse, is nervous. He’s afraid your heart valves may be affected. Why would he think this?
An autoimmune reaction to the original streptococcal infection, rheumatic fever, causes growths on heart valves, particularly the mitral valve preventing them from closing properly.
11. How do the heart and kidneys share responsibility for hypertension?
Hypertension in an increase in pressure on the vessel walls, either because of more blood circulating or a loss of elasticity and lumen size of the arteries. The kidneys regulate the volume of blood to ensure pressure remains normal. Anything that affects the walls of the vessels to decrease their elasticity or size of the lumen will increase blood pressure. If the renal (kidney) artery is affected, then the kidneys don’t get sufficient nutrients and don’t function well, affecting their ability to adjust blood volume. If there is any problem with the kidneys, they may not be able to adjust blood volume therefore affecting blood pressure.
12. Your elderly friend just isn’t able to get around like she used to. It doesn’t seem to be a strength or breathing problem, what would you likely suspect?
As we age, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis increases, so blood pressure increases. Chronic hypertension causes the left ventricle of the heart to enlarge to pump against the increased resistance, thus weakening the heart as it has to work constantly against the increased load.
Which are true of a myocardial infaction?

It can be confirmed with a blood test
Veins supplying the heart are occluded
C. Myocardium is regenerated to help heal the damaged area
Repair is sometimes done with veins taken from the leg
A & D
Atherosclerosis is characterized by which of the following (multiple answers)?
hardening of the artery walls
Loss of elasticity of the vessel
B & C
Which are true of the relationship between blood pressure, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis?

arteriosclerosis causes high blood pressure
B. atherosclerosis causes high blood pressure
atherosclerosis causes arteriosclerosis
D. blood pressure is independent of either arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis
A & C
Which is NOT a layer of the heart?

The resting phase of the heart beat is: systole
Which organ is often affected by hypertension?
Rheumatic fever may contribute to which of the following?

valvular stenosis
varicose veins
Arteries, as opposed to veins (multiple answers):

lead away from the heart
have muscular walls
have valves
have elastic walls
A, B, & D
Right-sided heart disease, like congestive heart disease, leads to all but one of the following:

spleen enlargement
edema of the ankles
distention of neck veins
pulmonary edema
erythr (red), cyte (cell): red blood cell
leuk (white), cyte (cell): white blood cell
cells responsible for clotting blood
fluid portion of blood in which the formed elements are suspended
hemo (blood), stasis (stopping, slowing): slowing or stopping of blood flow.
the ratio of red cells volume to whole blood volume and the ability of blood to transport oxygen
hemo (blood), rrhage (bursting forth): uncontrolled bleeding
a proliferation of immature white blood cells, at the expense of red blood cells and platelets.
a suffix referring to a reduced number, few
reduced number of red blood cells
1. If blood isn’t just a bunch of red stuff that pours out of us if we get poked, what is it?
Erythorcytes, leukocytes, platelets and plasma.
2. If someone has lost the ability to produce red blood cells, what would be the symptoms?
This would result in anemia and since red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen, the patient will have pallor (paleness), tachycardia (fast heart beat) as the heart pumps faster to get as much oxygen to tissue as possible, dyspnea (shortness of breath) as the blood is not able to carry oxygen effectively, both resulting in fatigue and dizziness.
3. If someone has an increased platelet disorder, what would you expect them to experience?
Bruising (ecchymosis) or small red spots (petechiae) or hemorrhaging (excessive bleeding)
4. Very generally speaking, compare the different consequences of conditions involving increased leukocytes versus decreased leukocytes.
With an increase of leukocytes, though you might initially think it would increase immunity, because the cells are immature, they are not effective and crowd out red blood cells and platelets resulting in lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) and bleeding disorders, whereas with an decrease in leukocytes, infection is much more likely.