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25 Cards in this Set

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Freud
psychoanalysist. discoverd the unconcious. defense mechanisms. talking cure. psychosexual development- oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
discontinuity
Erikson
psychoanalysist. pyschosocial development- trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and self doubt.
discontinuity
Piaget
believed in discontinuity which is a qualitative change.
children actively constuct their understading of the world and go through four states of cognitive development- sensorimotor, peroperational, concrete operational and formal stages
B.F. Skinner
operant conditioning the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probabilty of the behavior's occurance. good behavior= reward, more likely to happen again. bad behavior= consequence, less likely to happen again.
Bandura
leading architects of social cognitive theory. most recent model of learning and development includes three elements: behavior, the person/cognitive, and the environment.
Urie Bronfenbrenner
ecological theory- environmental systems theory holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems.
Konrad Lorenz
studied imprinting in goslings.
Vygotsky
social constructivist approach- temphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed.
John Locke
Tabula Rasa- blank slate theory. Environment is everything. Life, liberty, property
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
children were inately good, society corrupts them. had big impact n educators in Europe
Baltes
argues that on average older adults often show less capactiy for change in the sense of learning new things than younger adults.
characteristis-
1) development is lifelong
2)multidirectional
3)happens in context
4) multidimensional
5)multidisciplinary
Ainsworth
an affectional bond between two people binding them together and enduring over time. specific and discrimin ating. can be attached to more than one person at a time
Harlow
primetologist- studied monkies. challenged freud
Lifespan perspective
The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual: involves growth, maintenance, and regularion; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
discontinuous development
caterpillar to butterfly
theory
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions
hypothesis
specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
plasticity
ability to remake themselves, maleable. people with a stroke- promote positive change.
ethological


ecological
behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by cricical or sensitiv periods



environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: micro, meso, exo,macro, and chrono
psychoanalytic
describe development as primarily unconcious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the sumbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized.
cognitive developmental
The theory that children's gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender. Once the consistently conceive of themselves as male of remale. children often organize their world on the basis of gender.
information processing
Emphasizes that indicidual manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking.
cross-sectional studies
a reserach strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
longitudal studies
a research strategy in whic the same individual are studed ocer a period of tim, usually several years or more.
independant variable


dependant variable
manipulated, influencial, experimental factor. It is a potential cause.


a factor that can change in the experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable.