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15 Cards in this Set

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chromosomes
thread-like structures in the nucleus that contain genetic material
autosomes
first 22 pairs of chromosomes
sex chromosomes
23rd pair of autosomes determines the sex of the child
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
each chromosom actually consists of one molecule
gene
each group of compounds that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions
genotype
complete set of genes makes up a person's heredity
phenotype
an individual's physical, behavioral and psychological features
allels
genes come in different forms known as this
homozygous
when alleles in the pair of chromosomes are sometimes the same
heterozygous
when alleles differ
dominant allele
when an allele's chemical instructions are followed
recessive allele
allele's that are ignored
incomplete dominance
one allele doesn't dominate another completely
sickle-cell trait
most of the time, no problems. when short of oxygen they suffer a temporary relatively mild form of the disease
phenylketonuria (PKU)
disorder where babies are born lacking an important liver enzyme which without it phenylaline accumulates and produces poison that harms the nervous system