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114 Cards in this Set

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According to Baumrind, what are the two elements associated with Parenting Style?
Parental responsiveness
Parental demandingness
High Demandingness
Low Responsiveness...
Authoritarian
High Demandingness
High Responsiveness...
Authoritative
Low Demandingness
Low Responsiveness...
Uninvolved
Low Demandingness
High Responsiveness...
Indulgent
Contextual sources of stress and support can serve as determinants of parenting style. What are some examples of Contextual sources of stress and support?
Marital relationship

Availability of social support networks

Balance of work/family
What are the Determinants of Parenting Style?
Parents’ contribution

Child’s contribution

Contextual sources of stress and support

Marital relationship

Availability of social

support networks

Balance of work/family

Gender and socialization

Ethnic group membership
Parenting style has been found to be related to...
several child outcomes
children rated as more socially and instrumentally competent if they've had what type of parent?
authoritative
Parental characteristics: depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior are most common; also history of abuse
These are...
Determinants of Child abuse and neglect
Certain characteristics make children more susceptible to abuse. What are these?
handicaps, mental retardation
refers to a specific family subsystem comprising of adults from two different families of origin who have bonded together to form what they intend to be a stable and long-term cohabiting relationship.
marriage
Who you are in context with a partner
Conjugal roles
What does having a wife mean to my husband?

NOT SURE ABOUT THIS, MIGHT WANT TO LOOK THIS UP
Counter roles
What are the 2 identity tasks of newlyweds?
Establishing marital and family themes

Negotiate marital roles
Our identities are based upon...
how satisfied we are in our role and the clarity of the role
Three issues in understanding how people choose life partners
1.Factors that influence willingness to bond with another person

2.Family of origin experience

3.Factors that influence the patterns and dynamics of interaction within intimate relationships
What's an example of the factors that influence our willingness to bond
The Stage theories of mate selection (Murstein's Stimulus Value Role theory and Lewis’s Theory of Dyadic Formation).
This perspective uses the economic metaphor that one must balance rewards and costs associated with being in a relationship
social exchange perspective
One's satisfaction in a relationship is independent of their partner's satisfaction, according to the...
social exchange perspective
why the interpersonal attraction process is so unpredictable?
Each person must reduce the pool of eligibles based on their own standards
According to theSocial Exchange Perspective,
Comparison level takes into account the unique values and expectations that individuals bring to their relationships.
By what factors is this influenced?
Influenced by family of origin experiences, information from peers, the individual’s own relationship experiences
Comparison level takes into account the unique values and expectations that individuals bring to their relationships
Social Exchange Perspective
Reading 12 discusses dating within a college setting. How does the “hookup” impact the development of relationships?
Hooking up is more common than dating

men can get friendship & sexual activity easily thru hookups, so traditional dating is infrequent.Nowdays, dating refers to couples in exclusive relationships.

Authors argue that hookups are the main pathway into relationships at the present time, which puts women who want relationship development to preceed sex at a disadvantage.
Hook up has not gotten rid or exclusive relationships, which remain common. But, relationships now start with hookups (or friendship or hanging out) before an actual date.
This model posits that the high leves of interdependence that emerge at later stages of relationship development result from the perception that strong attraction, trust, commitment, and love exist within the relationship.
Interdependence Model of Mate Selection
____, ____, ____ work together to influence the amount of rewards an individual perceives receiving
Trust, commitment, and love
The willingness to form a lifetime relationship is based on experiences of trust commitment & love (?) as well as the perception that .....
that our partner’s experiences match our own.
Implies that the ability to form relationships with others is primarily developed within infancy/early childhood
Attachment Theory
What are the forms of attachment described by attachment theory?
Secure attachment
Avoidant attachment
Anxious-ambivalent
The primary experiences form the internal working model according to...
Attachment Theory
What are some identity tasks associated with Families with Young Children?
1.Altering family themes

2.Defining parental role identity
Four factors
The degree to which parents want to be parents
Amount of prior training/socialization received
Clarity of role demands
Amount of support available during transition

3.The child’s evolving identity
What are the four factors associated with Defining parental role identity?
A CAD

Amount of prior training/socialization received

Clarity of role demands

Amount of support available during transition

degree to which parents want to be parents
What are some examples of the Transformation of Family Boundaries?
External boundary changes

Realigning marital boundaries

Balancing work/family boundaries
Can lead to role conflict, role strain, or role overload
Balancing work/family boundaries
What aspects of the family must be renegotiated after the first child is born?
altering family themes

defining a parental role identity

renegotiating distances (boundaries with family & friends)

realigning marital boundaries

balancing between work and family

Household tasks: housekeeping, finances

Emotional climate: marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, leisure activities, managing conflict
the nonaccidental injury of a child by a parent or caregiver
abuse
a style of parenting that attempts to have control and evaluate the child's atitudes and behaviors according to a fixed set of strds
authoritarian
this type of parent tends to value obedience to their authority and tend to favor the use of punitive, forceful disciplinary methods.
authoritarian
a dimension of parenting stule that refers to the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiesent to children's special needs and demands.
parental responsiveness
a dimension of parenting style that refers to the expectations parents have for their children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demand, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness who confront children who disobey.
parental demandingness
also known as parental warmth or supportiveness
parental responsiveness
also known as behavioral control
parental demandingness
A style of parenting that is nurturing and relies primarily on positive reinforcement rather than punishment to control the child. Direct control over the child is achieved in a manner that displays awareness of the child's thoughts, feelings and developmental capabilities.
authoritative parenting
In addition to being loving as well as controlling, this type of parent tends to demand mature, responsible, and independent behavior from their children
authoritative parenting
a style of parenting that exerts little or no control over the child's behavior. Children are given a great deal of personal freedom with few restrictions.
indulgent parenting
the harming of the child through the lack of either proper care or adequate supervision.
neglect
refers to a parenting strategy characterized by attempts on the part of the parent to control the child by intruding into the psyhological and emotional development of the child through the use of practices such as guilt induction, withdrawal of love, or shaming.
psychological control
a parenting style characterized by neglect and permissiveness. Children are given no clearly defined rules for behavior and receive little or no attention.
uninvolved parenting
The Marriage Relationship during Middle Adult Years
is characterized by a need to..
balance work and marriage
What are gender differences in The Marriage Relationship during Middle Adult Years?
Men may have reached the highest level they can attain
Women are able to focus more on work without household demands
The impact of work on relationship during the middle adult years depends on..
marital quality established in previous years
Crisis associated with the empty nest can occur when...
children provided the couple with a sense of purpose in their lives, or children stabilize a conflicted and toxic marriage
Most couples move through this period with little crisis
empty nest
launching children leads to a renewed focus on marital relationship
empty nest
Stress in parent-children relationships in middle adulthood is caused by:
Children’s changing perspective of their own developmental needs

The changing developmental demands parents place on their children
Family boundaries are more flexible during this time to allow adolescents to move in/out of the family system
Parent-Child Dynamics during Middle Adulthood
A major challenge is for parents in middle adulthood to ...
transform their own roles and identities during this time
Stress can occur from family-of-origin issues
What happens to the personal authority relationship (between parents and children) in middle adulthood?
It is constantly renegotiated to allow children to express their autonomy

Please note: personal authority involves terminatinig the hierarchical parent-child relationship and establishing a symetrical, peer-like relationship in its place.
Becomes the basis for adult relationships
The personal authority relationship
Involves terminating the hierarchical relationship and establishing a symmetrical, peer-like relationship
changes in the personal authority relationship (between parents and children) in middle adulthood.
involves a redistribution of power
The renegotiation of the personal authority relationship (between parent and child) in middle adulthood
Middle aged adults are simultaneously caring for their own children and their aging parents
What is this called?
Generational squeeze

(characteristic of the sandwich generation?)
symbolic of the shifting generational ties within the family during later life
Grandparenting
Grandparenting roles could include:
reserve parent, family arbitrator, or family historian
Personal authority relationship may determine grandparents' ......
role in the family system
Intergenerational patterns of contact and support are dominated by a theme of .....
reciprocity
Caregiving is an extension of ...
intergenerational patterns of connection and support, which are determined by earlier patterns
What are the Three types of possible caregiver/care-receiver relationships?
Mutual relationship- Balances the needs of both the adult child and the parent in a healthy manner

Hierarchical-passive relationship- Parent maintains the position of parental authority while the adult child accepts their childlike position

Hierarchical-rebellious relationship- Parent attempts to maintain the authority position, but the adult child engages in a fight for power
Balances the needs of both the adult child and the parent in a healthy manner
Mutual relationship
Parent maintains the position of parental authority while the adult child accepts their childlike position
Hierarchical-passive relationship
Parent attempts to maintain the authority position, but the adult child engages in a fight for power
Hierarchical-rebellious relationship
the reduced speed in responding to stimulil and the senosory changes in vision, hearing, taste, touch and smell that accompany the aging process
behavioral slowing
a condition brought on by a decline in health status that stresses the relationships between aging spouses and between adult children and their aging parents.
frailty
A role transition that is discussed in the context of later-life family because the birth of grandchildren symbolically signifies a shift in centrality and power fromt the aging generation to the middle generation within the family hierarchy
grandparenthood
both a physical withdrawal from paid employment and a psychological reorientation of the importance of work to one's identity.
retirement
a period of the family life cycle occuring after all children have left home to live on their own
empty nest
the situation in which middle aged adults are responsible for simultaneosly meeting the needs of their own dependent children and those of their aging and frail parents.
generational squeeze
a period of the family life cycle that begins with the departure of the 1st child from the home and ends when all children have left home on their own.
launching
the situation that results when adult children who ahve been launched from the family return home to live with their parents.
renested family
out of pocket epenses for raising a child that include childbirth, food, clothing, housing, and education
direct costs
the potential income forgone by women who stay at home to raise their children or the added costs of childcare for those who do work
indirect costs
disagreements about marital roles and responsibilties and who should perform various tasks or how they should be performed
role conflict
the experience of finding it impossible to meet all of the competing demands one faces. It is often accompanied by feelings of anxiety and a loss of control over one's life.
role overload
the tensiion experienced when one has a clear idea of one's role responsibilities but is unable to fufill them in a way that satisfies one's expectations.
role strain
Disagreements over values, behaviors, family strategies, power, or resources during which one partner seeks to achieve his or her goals at the expense of the other
conflict
the unique attributes, traits, and characteristics associated with each individual as a spouse within the marriage
conjugal identity
the prescriptiions for behavior associated with the social position of a spouse
conjugal role
What is the diff between the conjugal role and the counter role?
conjugal role = the prescriptions for behavior associated with the social position of a spouse

counter role = the complimentary expectations for behavior that are superimposed upon the partner as aresult of the way an individual performs his or her own role.
the complimentary expectations for behavior that are superimposed upon the partner as aresult of the way an individual performs his or her own role.
counter role
the framework of meaning couples establish to define themselves in relation to one another as well as to the outside world. This includes 1. each person's conjugal identity
2. marital themses that organize the couples basic values and beliefs and provide guidellines for behiavior
3. each partner's cojugal role, which defines the specific behaviors associated with the social position of husband or wife.
couple identity
Couple identity includes what 3 components?
CCM
1. each person's conjugal identity
3. each partner's cojugal role, which defines the specific behaviors associated with the social position of husband or wife.
2. marital themses that organize the couples basic values and beliefs and provide guidellines for behiavior
A specific family subsystem comprised of adults from 2 families of origin who have bonded together to form what they intend to be a stable and long term cohabiting relationship
marriage
the shared prescriptions for behavior associated with a social position
role
diagreements between partners about marital roles and responsibilites
role conflict
a blueprint for sexual activity; the full range of motives and behaviors that guide how we act in sexual situations.
sexual script
Adults with this attachment style view others in a relationship as unreliable and unable to commit. They also see their relationships as having less interdependence, trust, and satisfaction when compared to securely attached individuals
anxious ambivalent attachment style
Adults with this attachment sdtyle tend to view relationships as less satisfying and intimate compared to securely attached individuals. They are also less trusting of others and tend to avoid getting close to others.
avoidant attachment style
the degree to which one is willing to work for the continuation of a relationship
commitment
the unique values and expectations individuals bring to their relationships. These are the standards against which the relationship is judged.
Comparison level (CL)
the drawbacks or expenses associated with a particular relationship. They can involve negative aspects of the relationship or rewards sacrificed as a result of engaging in the relationship.
costs
the degree to which one comes to rely on a parner for relationship outcomes
dependnce
a term used in social exchange framework to emphasize how relationships are viewed as "extended markets" in which individuals act out of self-interest with the goal of maximizing their profits and minimizing their costs.
economic metaphor
The notion that one's own satisfaction in a relationship depends upn the extent to which one's partner is satisfied as well. Acting in the best interests of the partner becomes a way to obtain benefits for the self.
interdependence
The overarching term used to label the emotions that arise out of rewarding and intimate interactions with another
love
interactions with one's partner that have as their goal reaching a consensus regarding common interests or concerns.
negotiations
the control of another's behavior through the ability to elicit compliance or resist the other's influence
power
The benefits exchanged in social relationships. The pleasures, satisfactions, and gratifications a person derives from participating in a relationship.
rewards
Individuals who are characterized by this attachment style have reported positive early family relationships and trusting attitudes towards others.
Within their adult partnerships, these individuals are comfortable getting close to and depending on others. They describe their relationships as being characterized by happiness and trust and they view themselves as friendly and likeable.
secure attachment style
The belief that one's partner will not exploit or take unfair advantage of the relationship.
trust
critical periods in the development of an intimate relationship during which it either evolves to a deeper level of intimacy or it dissolves.
turning points
In this stage of mate selection, attraction is based on factors such as physical appearance and social prestige.
stimulus
physical attractivenes, social acceptance and approval, provision of services or favors, bestowal of respect or prestige on another, compliance with another's wishes, positive verbal statements, listentin, offering self-disclosure, touching, giving gifts or spending time together are all examples of
rewards, the benefits exchanged in a social relationship
Rewards and costs can have a direct effect on the degree to which we are ______
attracted to a relationship
The balance of rewards and costs is refered to the level of outcome. Higher levels of positive outcomes are associated with __________
higher degree of interpersonal attraction