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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why is the family so important?
The Familistic package
Historical continuity
Economic benefits
Group membership benefits
Endorsed by society
What are the three components of The Triple Revolution?
1.The Postindustrial Family
2.the lifecourse revoloution
3. the psychological revolution
Describe each of the 3 components of the triple revolution.
The Postindustrial Family
Effects of economy on family transitions
The Life Course Revolution
Declining mortality rates
Marriage becomes less about parenting; more emphasis on a personal relationship
A Psychological Revolution
“Psychological gentrification”- cultural advantages are extended to most of the population
Greater introspectiveness and yearning for family warmth
What is psychological gentrification?
cultural advantages are extended to most of the population
List and Describe some of the myths about families.
F. PUS
The Myth of Family Harmony = there's no conflict betw people in families
The Myth of Parental Determinism = how your parents raised you determines how you'll turn out
The Myth of Universality = definition of families is same in different cultures and contexts
The Myth of a Stable Past= everything was idyllic in the past
Define family.
SBS
Members of a family have SBS:
Shared sense of history
Bonding (emotional)
Strategies for meeting the needs of individual and the group as a whole
What things are Implicit in the idea of family as a system?
MC SS

-Multiple subsystem composition
-Common purposes and tasks
-Structurally complex
-Strategies are designed for the execution of tasks
What are the Two dimensions to families?
1. structure
2. tasks
Describe the 2 dimensions to families.
o Structure
 Includes family composition and organization
o Tasks
 The business of the family- responsibilities for the members and society
What are the structural properties of families?
WOI
Wholeness
Organizational Complexity
Interdependence
Describe each of the structural properties of families.
o Wholeness
Systems must be understood in their entirety

Made of a group of individuals who together form a complex and unitary whole

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
o Organizational complexity
Systems are composed of smaller units that compose the larger family system

Subsystems each have their own tasks within the larger system

-Interdependence
The individuals and subsystems that comprise the whole system are mutually dependent upon one another

Factors that influence one person have an impact on everyone
What is one important thing to note about the structural properties of families?
- One important thing to note is that the family can be viewed as a subsystem within broader community and societal systems
What are strategies?
o Strategies are the specific patterns of interaction that a family adopts for the execution of its tasks

o Rules then are the specific recurring patterns of interaction that define the limits of acceptable and appropriate behavior in the family
Rules include:
 Overt rules are explicit and openly stated
 Covert rules are implicit, everyone knows though no one has stated
 Metarules are “rules about the rules”
What are rules?
 Overt rules are explicit and openly stated
 Covert rules are implicit, everyone knows though no one has stated
 Metarules are “rules about the rules”
What are the differences between strategies and rules?
o Strategies are the specific patterns of interaction that a family adopts for the execution of its tasks
o Rules then are the specific recurring patterns of interaction that define the limits of acceptable and appropriate behavior in the family
 Overt rules are explicit and openly stated
 Covert rules are implicit, everyone knows though no one has stated
 Metarules are “rules about the rules
Name and describe the different types of rules.
 Overt rules are explicit and openly stated
 Covert rules are implicit, everyone knows though no one has stated
 Metarules are “rules about the rules”
What are first order family tasks?
o First order tasks include the objectives the family is charged with fulfilling common to all families (includes identity, boundary, and maintenance tasks)
What is the difference between first order and second order family tasks?
o First order tasks include the objectives the family is charged with fulfilling common to all families (includes identity, boundary, and maintenance tasks)

o Second order tasks
 Adaptability is the capacity of the system to change its rules and strategies in response to stress
 Family systems are seen as open- they are able to manage the flow of information going in and coming out of the system
• Morphostasis refers to those processes that resist change in existing strategies
• Morphogensis refers to those processes that foster growth and development
Differentiation is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
Bowen's Intergenerational
Conflict is a term that is associated primarily with which model of family functioning? How is conflict used in this model?
conflict - intergen

In intergen model, conflict is used to maintain distance from others and protect one's sense of self.
Emotional cuttoff is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
family ledger is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
family projection process is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
fusion is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
legacy is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
multigenerational transmission
is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
overfunctioning/underfunctioning is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
triangulation is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
intergen
Adaptation is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
Alliance is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
Boundaries is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
Coalition is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
Context is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
Cross-Generational coalition
is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
disengagement is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
enmeshment is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
hierarchy is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
parentification is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
subsystem is a term that is associated with which model of family functioning?
structural
How the family reorganizes its structure in response to internal demands and external social or environmental events.
adaptation

s
a pattern of interaction formed when two family members share an interest with one another that is not shared by others
alliance

s
Within the structural model, definition of who is in the system and in its subsystems; they regulate how family members interact with one another
boundaries

s
an interactional pattern characterized by one family member siding with a second member over a third.
Coalitiion

s
the set of circumstances of facts that surround a particular event, situation, indiv, or fam.
context

s
an inappropriate alliance between one parent and a child against the other parent that undermines the executive functions and authority of the parental subsystem.
cross-generational coalition

s
the lack of involvement among family members that results from rigid boundaries.
disengagement

s
the overinvolvement of family members that results from diffuse boundaries
enmeshment

s
the clear distinctions between levels fo well-orgnaized system
hierarchy

s
an imbalance in family's power and authority hierarchy that develops when power and control rest with children, or when parents rely on their children for nurturance, support, and care.
parentification

s
the invisible set of functional demands that oraganizes the way family members interact with one another over time.
structure
subsystem
a group formed within a larger system that shares common functions of other features such as gender, generation, or interest.

s
can be used to maintain an illusion of difference ; a stratetgy for maintaining distance from others and protecting one's sense of self.
conflict

i
for individual: ability of family members to express their own individuality and act autonomously while remaining emot contect to others.
for family: degree to which difference is tolerated within the family system
differentiation

i
the extent to which one has sucessfuly resolved emot attach to one's fam of origin. This becomes reflected in the individual's level of psychological maturity.
differentiation of self

i
an attempt to emotionally, psychologically, or physically detach oneself from the family of origin in an effort to avoid fusion and maintain control over one's sense of self.
emotional cuttof

i
multigenerational accounting system of who owes what to whom
family ledger

i
process by which parents project (displace) part of their own unresolved emotional attachements or conflicts onto one or more of their children.
family projection process


i
the tendency to submerge one's sense of self in relationships with others, thereby losing the distinctions among emotional and intellectual functioning, self, and other.
fusion


i
the set if expectations and responsibilities family members develop toward one another based on the patterns and dynamics that have operated in their extended family system over time, and on the particular position that they held in their own family of origin. this term includes as sense of loyalty and indebtedness to family
legacy


i
the process by which a family's level of differentiation and the parents' unresolved emotional attachments are reenacted in future relationships and passed along to succeeding generations.
multigenerational transmission process


i
a reciprocal pattern of interaction in which one participant assumes a competent, caretaking position in relation to the other, who assumes a dependent, child-like position.
overfunctioning/underfunctioning

i
a superordinate personal structure whose purpose is to organize an individual's experiences into a coherent and meaningful whole
self


i
a 3 person interaction in which the tensiion and conflict experienced between 2 people is displaced onto a third party
triangulation

i
undifferentiated family ego mass
a poorly differentiated system characterized by a low tolerance for individuality in which members appear to be "emotionally stuck together."

i
........refers to those processes that resist change in existing strategies
morphostasis
.....refers to those processes that foster growth and development
morphogenesis
What are the three types of family strategies?
1. Boundary strategies
2. Maintenance Strategies
3. Managing stress
Distinguish by external and internal boundaries.
o External boundaries- regulated by permeability – the degree to which the boundaries are open or closed
 rules influence the amount of interaction with others
 rules influence comfort level and trust of those outside the family
o Internal boundaries-how distances are regulated within the family and subsystems
 a low tolerance for individuality = enmeshed
• limits autonomy
 a high tolerance for individuality = disengaged
• promotes autonomy
This type of boundary is regulated by permeability, the degree to which boundaries are open or closed.
external boundary
This type of boundary determines how distances are regulated within the family and subsystems.
internal boundary
Rules associated with this type of boundary influence the amount of interaction with others as well as comfort level and trust of those outside the family
external boundary
A family's level of tolerance for individuality reflects what type of boundary?
internal boundary
 a low tolerance for individuality would mean that there is what type of internal boundary?
Does this limit or promote autonomy?
enmeshed ; limits
 a high tolerance for individuality would involve what type of boundary? Does this limit or promote autonomy?
disengaged ; promotes autonomy
...involve the amount of time, energy and money that the family has available to accomplish its maintenance tasks
o Maintenance resources
emot management strategies can be used to determine emotional expression within the system. In what 3 ways does this occur?
• denial of conflict
- denial until explosion
• detouring conflict between a subsystem onto a third party (scapegoat, triang, coalition)
Maintenance strategies reflect the priorities of the system and are characterized by the complexity of the system. What are the two levels of organization and how are they characterized?
 underorganized systems are inconsistent and chaotic
 overorganized are rigid
o Adaptability reflects the coping strategies a systems has in place. What types of strategies exist?
 both cognitive and behavioral coping strategies
o Adaptability reflects the coping strategies a systems has in place.
which of the three types of family strategies is this associated with?
managing stress
What are the three assumptions of Minuchin’s Structural Model?
 All individuals operate within a social context that defines the parameters of their individual behaviors
 Social context has a definable structure
 Some structures are better than others
o Structure refers to ...
an invisible set of functional demands that organizes the way families interact with one another
 context that surround the event, situation, or family
o This model adopts the view that the family system has a structural foundation that contributes to its effectiveness
• Minuchin’s Structural Model
How are subsystems organized?
in hierarchy
Boundaries help establish
hierarchy
 Proper hierarchy must be in place to maintain proper system functioning. What is an example of a time when this does NOT occur?
parentification
What are the 2 types of Issues assoc with Unclear Boundaries?
 Disengagement = boundaries are too rigid
 Enmeshment = boundaries are too diffused
What is the difference between a coalition and an alliance?
• Coalitions involve one person siding with a second against a third, enacting power
• Alliance occurs when two members share an interest that is not shared by a third, but overall functioning is not harmed
• Cross-generational coalitions- implies enmeshment across subsystems
According to struct, specific needs of the family must be determined before ....
boundaries & hierarchies are set
According to struct, The effectiveness of the family system’s structure is determined by the interplay between ....
subsystems, boundaries, and hierarchy
...occurs when a family system reorganizes itself to deal with internal or external stressors
adaptation
 A tool to graphically represent the form and organization of a particular family system is a ...
structural map
model that focuses on how strategies and rules become established
Intergenerational Model
 Childhood experiences in the family of origin affect identity development and future adult relationships, according to what model?
intergenerational
patterns and dynamics of interaction that directly and indirectly affect development of the self are known as..
 System
– There is continuum for the level of differentiation within families
 Well-differentiated =
 Poorly-differentiated =
 Well-differentiated = High tolerance for difference
 Poorly-differentiated = Low tolerance for difference
According to the intergenerational perspective, Tolerance is reflected in how well the family does 3 things. What are they?
 Tolerance is reflected in how well the family:
– regulates internal boundaries

– manages emotional climate

– executes identity tasks - differentiation of self
According to the intergenerational perspective, if a family regulates their internal boundaries poorly, they are said to be...
fused
According to the intergenerational perspective, if a family does not manage emotional climate appropriately they are said to be..
triangulated (triangulation)
According to the intergenerational model, what are some strategies used by poorly differentiated individuals?
– Creation of conflict to maintain distance
 Creates illusion of difference
– Establish rigid boundaries
 Overfunctioning/underfunctioning
– Family projection process
According to the intergenerational perspective, Multigenerational Transmission Process
refers to the Transmission of unresolved emotional attachments over the generations. What terms are associated with this concept?
legacy, family ledger
the physical characteristics of particular groups of people is known as ...
race
the geographic origins of a group of people refers to ...
ethnicity
the meaning that people give to events is known as ...
culture
Distinguish between race, ethnicity, and culture.
– Race-the physical characteristics of particular groups of people
– Ethnicity-the geographic origins of a group of people
– Culture-the meaning that people give to events
Distinguish between the multidimensional perspective and the culture-specific perspective.
 Multidimensional perspective
– Cultural diversity is derived from more than just race and ethnicity
– Accepts that each family system is different
 Culture-specific perspective
– Emphasis on examining beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize members of a particular ethnic or cultural group
– Able to make comparisons between groups and see what differentiates one group from another
• Explain the familistic package and its importance to society
Division of labor and reusulting possibility of social exchanges between husband and wife as well as children and parents.

serves as economic unit

continuity= whatever members produce together they can enjoy together later

family as a social unit is widely supported by society
Understand the diversity within Latino/Hispanic families
-not all latino families are of mexican origin --there are puerto ricans, cubans, dominicans

3 important lessons learned:
1. understanding latino diversity does not mean appreciating the ways that family are different, it means analyzing how the formation of diverse families is based on and reproduces social inequalities.
2.family diversity plays a part in diff economic orders and the shifts that accompany them.
3. the incredible array of immigrant fam forms and their capacity for adaptation offer new departures for the study of postmodern families.
Explain the debate surrounding the “Mommy Wars”
Darnton (1960) came up with this term. Depicts a conflict between stay at home and working mothers.

Author in S and S says that this is overexaggerated. She says that most women express respect for a woman's choice to work or stay at home. Also, both groups have similar concerns when it comes to child rearing