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90 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Behavior Theory: Learning accoring to theories
must be observable and measureable.Pos and Neg reinforcers
Cognitive: according to theories
What happens in the entire process of thinking. How they take in stimulus through developmental stages
Social Learning Theory: according to theories
interaction between someone else, somehow through a relationship. Stress the need to provide models for people to imitate
Who came up with the Sensorimotor period and what is it?
Piaget. It refers to the coordination of motor activities with sensory inputs(Rely on senses to make meaning) First 2 years of life. Babies begin to look at what they are listening too.
Object Permanence
capacity to view the external world as permanent. Infants lack object permanence. (out of sight, out of mind is how infants think) It is the Inability to represent the world externally.
According to Bruner we know something in 3 ways... what are they?
Enactive: through doing it
Ikonic: through a picture or image of it
Symbolic: symbolic means such as language.
What are the 2 contributions to human life that Language makes?
1. it enables us to communicate with one another
(interindividual comm.)
2. It facilitates individual thinking.(intraindividual comm.)
What are two thoughts of Language?
1. thought takes place independly of language
2. words are only necessary to convey thoughts to others.
Language develops __________ to thought
Parallel with, or prior too.
grouping perceptions into classes or categories based on similarities
nonverbal communication or body language
1 month: language
cries, makes small throaty noises
2 Months
begins producing vowel like cooing noises, but sounds are unlike adults
3 Months
Cries less, coos, gurgles at the back of the throat, squeals, and occasionally chuckles
4 Months
Cooing becomes pitch modulated; vowel like sounds begin to be interspersed with consonantal sounds; smiles and coos when talked to.
6 months
vowel sounds are interspersed with more consonantal sounds which produce babbling; displays pleasure with squeals, gurgles, and giggles, and displeasure with growl and grunts.
8 Months
Displays adults intonation in babbling; often uses two syllable utterances such as "mama". Imitates sounds
10 Months
Understands some words and associated gestures, may say "no" and shake head.
12 months
Employs more holophrases, such as "baby", "bye bye", many imitate sounds of objects such as "bow wow" give signs of understanding commands.
18 months
possesses a repertoire of 3 to 50 words;
24 months
has repertoire of more than 50 words; uses two word utterances more frequently; displays increasing interest in verbal communication.
Ten Fundamental Emotions
Sadness, surprise, fear, enjoyment, anger, guilt, disgust, shyness, interest, shame.
Izard thinks...
Each emotion has its own distinctive facial pattern
The physiological changes, subjective experiences and expressive behaviors that are are involved in such feeling such as love, joy, grief, and anger.
Charles Darwin says...
-says that emotion have survival value
-Emotions communicate to members of own kind and other species important messages regarding their inner disposition.
Darwin: Purposes of emotion
-Emotions help humans survive and adapt to their enviroment
-Emotions serve to guide and motivate human behavior
-Emotions support communication with others.
Two types of Emotional Intelligence
1. Interpersonal Intelligence
(to understand others)
2.Intrapersonal Intelligence
(personal, more insightful.
What is the course of Attachment?
First there is arousal from the enviroment: then you dont like withdrawal from any one attachment: Last, you find a specific attachment.
refers to the relatively consistent, basic disposition that underlie and modulate much of a person's behavior.
Who states the Psychoanalytic view and what is it?
Frued. Adult neurosis has its roots in childhood conflicts associated with the meeting of instictual needs.
Who states to Psychosocial view and what is it?
Erickson: development of basic trust in others. Trust vs. mistrust: First social achievement: willingness to let mother move out of sight.
What are the theories of personality development?
-The psychoanalytic View
-The psychosocial view
-The behavioral view(learning)
-The cognitive View
-The ecological View
Behavioral View
-also called learnin view. Watson and Skinner.
-concerned with outward display of emotions
-Rewards appropriate behaviors
-Extinguishes inappropriate behaviors
The cognitive View
How children reason and solve problems.
The ecological View
-Enviromental influences contribute to development
Securely attached infants
when mother returned to the room: warm greetings, little anger when left, consistent, sensitive, and responsive parenting, indicate when wanted to be comforted
Insecure/avoidant infants
ignored and avoided mother on her return. These infants show little distress at being released from parents. tend to treat a stranger similiar to a parent.
Insecure/resistant infants
they would cling to the mother, and hide from stranger. But when mom returned the infant would seek contact only to reject her by squirming and pushing her away.
Disoranized/disoriented infant
upon parental return they show confusion and apprehension toward their mother. at greater risks for maladaptation.
Stranger anxiety
common in 8 months old, seems to peak at 13-15 months, then decreases.
Separation Anxiety
distress when caregiver leaves, common in 4 to 8 months old
Gross motor skills
large muscles and coordination of arms and legs
Fine motor skills
holding a pencil, little muscle, specific hand eye coordination.
During what years is the head bigger then the body?
Early Childhood 2-6 years
Kids with Coordination Problems..
-have greater risk for significant social problems
-Recreational or physical therapist
-Occupational therapist
Sensory Development
-visual, tactile, and kinesthetic senses
-hearing and language development
-olfactory, and gustatory sensations (Smell and taste)
What about a 5 year old childs brain?
it is about 90% of his or her final adult body weight.
Variability in Eating behaviors
-refuse certain foods
-Eating frequency
-Dental Health affects nutritional intake.
-Food allergies
-a vegetarian diet
Self Care behaviors:
-Toilet Training: shows indepence, 3rd year
-Sleep: more consistent
-Illness and Immunization
Garners Multiple Intelligence
-Bodily Kinesthetics (building)
Preoperational Thought
Piaget's theory
this period is from 2 to 7 years old. Childrens achievement in this period is that they develop the capacity to represent the external world internally through the use of symbols
What did Piaget observe
that although children make major strides in there cognitive development, there reasoning and thinking processes hava a number of limitations
concentration on one feature of a situation and neglect other aspects. (when water from a tall thin glass is full, and poured into a short wide glass and half empty)
refers to the concept that the quantity or amount of something stays the same regardless of changes in its shape or position
Sates and Transformation
children pay attention to the states, rather than the transformation
series of operations can be gone through in reverse order to get back to the starting point which is the concept of reversibility of operations which the child lacks this cognitive ability
lack awareness that there are viewpoints other than ones own
Language Acquisition
mastery of phonolgy (different sounds with in the language) and morphology (how a word can change forms)
Developmental Phonological Disorders
are language disorders that involve difficulty in learning to use easily understood speech by 4 years old.
Reasons for late talkers:
-quiet babies
-siblings communicating childs wish.
Vygoskys Perspective
Zone of proximal development: child learns in a social setting
Zone of proximal development
tasks that are a little too hard for children to accomplish alone, can be mastered by children when they are helped by a more skilled partner.
What does memory refer to?
It refers to the retention of what has been experienced
individuals awareness of there own mental processes
individuals awareness of their own memory process. (phone numbers, address)
Time frames of memory
-Sensory: fraction of a sec-several seconds
-Short term(working): very brief, no more than 30 sec.
-Long term: over a period of time
Information Processing
memory includes recall, recognition, and the facilitation of learning.
Moral Development
social feelings first appear in the preoperational stage, for the first time feelings can be represented, recalled, and named. The ablility to recall information makes moral feelings possible.
Emotions serve as what?
organizers and motivatiors
What skills are necessary for social competence?
-self control
-Managing emotions
-knowing options
What do parents emotions affect?
Childrens adjustment and social competency
ways of expression
-Large and fine muscle control
-Voice qualities
Functional Play
is repetitive (rolling a ball or model car around)
Constructive Play
involves manipulating objects or toys to create something else (building blocks)
Parallel Play
involves solitary play near others (putting a puzzle together alone)
Onlooker Play
is observational(watching others play games)
Associative Play
involves two or more children sharing toys and materials (sharing a box of crayers, but coloring own things)
Cooperative Play
interacting with someone else
What are the types of play?
-pretend play
-exploration play
-Playing Games
-Social Play
-Rough and tumble play
Boys Play
Girls Play
Acquiring Emotional Understanding
-the link between feeling and thinkin
-Responding to emotions of others
-Forming emotional ties
the process of transmitting culture, of transforming children into bona fide, functioning members of society
Parenting Styles: Authoritarian
Parents operate from hostile, rejecting, and restrictive parenting(shape, control children, absolute)
Children are discontented, withdrawn, distrustful
Parenting Style:
parents provide firm direction but give freedom within limits.
The children are self reliant,self controlled, explorative, contented
Permissive:Parenting Style
absence of accepting and affirmative enviroment. Parents wanna be friends.
the children regulate own behavior, they are less self reliant, explorative and self controlled
No parent interaction
Effective discipline is
consistent and unambiguous
Nonfamiliar social Influences
Video games
Preschoolers watch an average of ..
3 to 4 hours of television per day.