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67 Cards in this Set

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List stages of death and describe them.
DAB DA
Denial
Denial is resisting the whole idea of death
No, I’m not; or she’s not!

Denial is a form of defense mechanism to allow one to absorb difficult information at one’s own pace
Anger
“Why me/her?” or “why not you?”

In this stage people may be very difficult to be around.

Bargaining
At this stage people are trying to negotiate their way out of the death

Typically, people try to make deals with God

Sometimes the bargain creates an event or date until which the person can hold on (such as a grandchild’s wedding)

Depression
The individual at this stage is overwhelmed by a deep sense of loss

Reactive depression is a type of depression what has already occurred, such as loss of dignity, health, etc.
Preparatory depression is the anticipation of future losses, such as the loss of a relationship

Acceptance
People are fully aware that death is impending

In this stage individuals near death make peace with death and may want to be left alone

Persons in this stage are often unemotional and uncommunicative
Distinguish between reactive and preparatory depression
Reactive depression is a type of depression what has already occurred, such as loss of dignity, health, etc.
Preparatory depression is the anticipation of future losses, such as the loss of a relationship
Describe the probs with KB's theory
Evaluating Kübler-Ross
The theory does not apply to people who are not sure they are going to die - when the prognosis is ambiguous.
The stages are not universal, nor do people go through them in progression.
Anxiety, especially about pain, is omitted in her stages and this is an important concern for cancer patients.
There are still a lot of differences in peoples' reactions to death related to family, culture, finances, personality, etc.
What are living wills?
Legal documents designating what medical treatments people want or do not want if they cannot express their wishes
Define Assisted Suicide.
A death where a person provides the means for a terminally ill patient to commit suicide

It is a form of euthanasia
Compare assisted suicide with euthanasia
Assisted suicide: A death where a person provides the means for a terminally ill patient to commit suicide;It is a form of euthanasia

euthanasia: The practice of assisting terminally ill people die more quickly
What is euthanasia?
The practice of assisting terminally ill people to die more quickly
What is the difference between functional death and brain death?
Functional death: absence of heart beat and breathing.

brain death: All signs of brain activity, as measured by electrical brain waves, have ceased
where brain activity is measured, has become the medical measure of death (no possibility of restoring brain function).
Thanatologists
People who study death
Suggest that death education should be a part of everyone’s schooling
Fastest growing segment of population is ....
people who are 85 and older.
Name and describe Erikson's final stage of psychosocial development.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.
Name and Describe Peck’s Developmental tasks.
*is typically some form of transcendence vs. preoccupation.
BRE
-Body transcendence vs. Preoc
-Redefinition of self vs. preoc with work
-Ego transcendence vs. Preoc

Peck’s Developmental tasks
Redefinition of self vs. Preoccupation w/ work role
those in old age must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to their work-roles or occupations.

Body transcendence vs. body preoccupation
a period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of aging.

Ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
A period in which elderly people must come to grips with their coming death.
According to Daniel Levinson, people enter late adulthood after passing through a transition stage that typically occurs...
about age 60 to 65.
Bernice Neugarten
Conducted a study focusing on how people cope with aging.
What were the
Four personality types among those in 70’s that she identified?
P. DID
-Passive-dependent personalities
-Disintegrated & disorganized
-Integrated personalities
-Defended personalities
Describe the differences between neugarten's personality types.
-Passive-dependent personalities
Lead lives filled with fear.
Illness
Future
Inability to cope
May seek out help, even when not needed

-Disintegrated & disorganized
Unable to accept aging.
Experience despair as they age.
Often end up in nursing homes, or are hospitalized.

-Integrated personalities (most people)
Most successful.
Cope comfortably with aging.
Accept becoming older & maintain self dignity.

-Defended personalities
Seek to ward off aging.
May try to act young.
Unrealistic expectations may lead to disappointment.
What are the benefits associated with a life review?
Are there any problems associated with life review?
a better understanding of one's life
resolution of lingering problems
a sense of sharing and mutuality with others like them
may improve memory

A life review is not always positive.
People may become obsessed with the past.
This may cause psychological dysfunction
Despair
1.What are the two approaches to sucessful aging?
2.What other terms are often associated associated with sucessful aging?
3. Describe all of the elements associated with sucessful aging.
Disengagement theory
Activity theory
continuity theory
selective optimization
Successful aging
Disengagement theory
the period in late adulthood that marks a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels; people withdraw from the world and the world compels the elderly to withdraw (e.g., retirement).

Successful aging
Disengagement theory
People can become more reflective about their lives
People can become less constrained by social roles
Can help them adjust to increasing frequency of serious illness and death among their peers
Disengagement is not an automatic, universal process for all people in late adulthood.
Successful aging
Activity theory
successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age.

Happiness and satisfaction with life are assumed to spring from a high level of involvement with the world.
Successful aging
Activity theory
When it is no longer possible to work, successful aging according to activity theory suggests that replacement activities can be found.
Being involved in any activity just to remain active may not always contribute to happiness and satisfaction
Some people are happier when they can slow down and only do those things that bring them greatest satisfaction.

Successful aging
Continuity theory
Suggests that people simply need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem.

Successful aging
May depend on prior behavior
Good physical and mental health are important in determining sense of well-being
Financial security and a sense of autonomy and independence gives one an advantage
A positive outlook on life helps people view their old age more favorably
Successful aging
Selective optimization
where people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas.

People who focus on making the most of their achievements in particular areas may well be able to compensate for any limitations and losses that do occur
Is Disengagement is not an automatic, universal process for all people in late adulthood?
NO
the period in late adulthood that marks a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels; people withdraw from the world and the world compels the elderly to withdraw (e.g., retirement) is known as....
Disengagement
successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age.

The above is associated with what theory of sucessful aging?
activity theory
When it is no longer possible to work, successful aging according to activity theory suggests that replacement activities can be found. Does
Being involved in any activity just to remain active contribute to happiness and satisfaction?
Being involved in any activity just to remain active may not always contribute to happiness and satisfaction

Some people are happier when they can slow down and only do those things that bring them greatest satisfaction.
Suggests that people simply need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem. Which theory is this?
continuity theory
Differentiate between activity theory and continuity theory.
Continuity theory = Suggests that people simply need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem.

activity theory= successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age.
What is selective optimization?
where people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas
List Stages of retirement and describe them.
HDRRT

At first there is a honeymoon period, in which former workers engage in a variety of activities, such as travel, that were previously hindered by full-time work.
Disenchantment may occur when retirees conclude that retirement is not all they thought it would be.
Reorientation is the stage where retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities.
A retirement routine stage occurs when retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled in this new phase of life.
The final stage is the process of termination where the retiree either goes back to work or health deteriorates so badly that the person can no longer function independently.
Describe the economics of late adulthood.
People who were well-off in young adulthood remain so in late adulthood; those who were poor remain poor in late adulthood.
Discuss what is true about marriage in later life
The proportion of men who are married over the age of 65 is far greater than that of women.
70 % of women outlive their husbands.
What happens to happiness and quality of life for women?
Happiness and quality of life for women often plummets since marriage may have been central to their identity.
What things are true about the elderly never-married in late life?
Report feeling less lonely than most people of the same age.
Greater sense of independence.
Discuss marriage after retirement
For many couples, retirement means that relationships have to be refashioned.
Couples spend more time together.
Provides an opportunity for sharing household chores.
Men become more affiliative and less competitive and women become more assertive and autonomous.
The typical retirement age is moving downward to what age?
60
How much of his or her income does an elderly person spend on health care costs?
The average older person spends 20% of his or her income on health care costs.
T or F: the majority of old people (65 or older) have defective memory, are disoriented, or demented.
F
T or F: The five senses all tend to weaken in old age.
T
T or F:The majority of old people have no interest in, nor capacity for, sex.
F
T or F: Lung vital capacity tends to decline in old age.
T
T or F:The majority of old people are sick most of the time.
F
Physical strength tends to decline in old age.
T
At least 1/10 of the aged are lliving in long-stay institutions.
F. Only 5% stay at any one time, but as you get older the likelihood increases
Aged drivers have fewer accidents per driver than those under age 65.
T
Older workers can't work as effectively as younger workers
F
OVer 3/4 of aged are healthy enough to carry out their normal activities.
T
The majority of old people are unable to adapt to change
F
Old people usually take longer to learn something new.
T
It is almost impossible for the average old person to learn something new.
F
Older people tend to react slower than do younger people
T
In general, old people tend to be pretty much alike
F
The majority of old people say that they are seldom bored.
T
The majority of old people are socially isolated.
F
Older workers have fewer accidents than do younger workers.
T
The average age of death for a population...
has been incr
What are the avg ages of death for men and women?
75 for men
80 for women
Why do we age: what theories are being used to explain this?
Genetic preprogramming theories
Suggest that our body’s DNA genetic code contains a built in time limit for the reproduction of human cells.
Wear and tear theories
The mechanical functions of the body simply wear out with age.
The leading causes (3/4 of all deaths) are from what cond't in late adulthood?
heart disease, cancer, and stroke
Most older adults have at least one chronic, long term condition.describe
Arthritis is common, afflicting approx. 50%
Approx. 1/3 have high blood pressure
distinguish betw types of generativity
Biological generativity
Having children
Parental generativity
Taking care of children
Work generativity
Teaching someone a new skill
Cultural generativity
Adding something to society
what is seas of life theory?
Adult men pass through a series of stages beginning in early adulthood and continuing into middle adulthood

Around age 40/45 men move into a period called the midlife transition
what is Levinson – midlife transition?
A time of questioning…people begin to focus on the finite nature of life, and they begin to question some of their everyday, fundamental assumptions.
Mid-life crisis…
A stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite (that life will ultimately end).
Despite widespread acceptance (and centrality in Levinson’s model), the evidence for a midlife crisis do not exist.
For the majority of people, the transition is smooth and rewarding.
Boomerang children…
young adults who come back to live in the homes of their middle-aged parents.
There has been a significant increase in the US in the number of boomerang children
why Boomerang children?
May be a result of:
Economic issues
Difficulty finding a job
Couples are marrying later
Break-up of a relationship
Sandwich Generation…
Fulfilling the needs of both their younger children, and their older parents.

This trend may be the result of:
Couples are marrying and having children later.
Parents are living longer.
Ginsberg's Career Choice Theory holds that people move through a series of stages in choosing a career:
Fantasy period
Lasts until 11 years old. Career choices are made without regard to skills, abilities, or available jobs.
Tentative period
During adolescence, begin to think about job requirements and how their abilities and interests fit them.
Realistic period
Young adults explore specific career options through actual experience or through training for a profession.
According to psychologists Lazarus and Folk man, people move through a series of stages in the stress response.
PRIMARY APPRAISAL is the assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral.
SECONDARY APPRAISAL is the assessment of whether one's coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat, or challenge posed by the potential stressor
Schaie's stages of development
Achieving Stage
Is the point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions.


Responsible Stage
Middle adulthood

Executive Stage
Middle adulthood

Reintegration Stage
Late adulthood
Perry's stages
dualistic thinking – right or wrong; good or bad; for them or against them.

As they encountered new ideas and points of view, they began to hold multiple perspectives on an issue – multiple thinking…

relativistic thinking – rather than believing that there are absolute standards and values, they begin to see that different cultures, societies, and individuals can have different standards and values, all of them equally valid.
*What is career consolidation?
Career Consolidation:
stage that begins between the ages of 20 and 40, in which young adults become centered on their careers.