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39 Cards in this Set

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What is Social referential communication?
– Communicating information to someone who knows little about the topic
  Ex. Describing how to fix the computer over the phone using language only
Discourse versus topical knowledge
Discourse knowledge – Grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, etc.
Topical knowledge – What the writer knows about a topic
Adolescents are much better conversationalists than younger children. Why?
PPD
  Use probabilistic reasoning (predict another’s views, behaviors, etc.)
  Avoid polarizing thinking – one correct answer and one wrong answer
  Become efficient in dialectical thinking – understand that several perspectives may have some truth and come to a reconciliation
o o Allows teens to appreciate contradictions, learn tolerance, and seek negotiations
  Express their own point of view or disagree with another’s point of view
  Withhold judgment and not dismiss another’s view without giving him/her a chance to explain
  Ignore unpleasant remarks, decide not to argue, simply end a bad
Chatting or e-mailing may seem like it fosters positive communication, but we should be careful about this assumption…
  Increased Internet use related to less interpersonal social engagement, more feelings of loneliness and depression
  ‘Talking’ on the computer involves different language and social skills than face to face communication
  Research shows Internet increase informational social support but decreases emotional social support (ex. new mom chat rooms versus a caring friend to help)
  We need more research on the topic
Date rape can occur as a result of misunderstanding about what script is expected (scripts usually follow trad’l gender roles). What are some characteristics that make it likely that a man will commit sexual violence?
 heavy drug or alcohol use
 Having sexually aggressive peers
 Acceptance of dating violence (see below)
 Interpersonal violence
acceptance of trad’l gender roles
 miscommunications about sex
Adversarial attitudes about relationships
Impact of teen pregnancy
 l Teen dads less likely to finish high school and more likely to be delinquent even after child is born
 l Most research on teen moms, just over half of dads stay involved in child’s life (reasons: lack of enc from parents or gp, disinterest, lack of money or knowledge)

 l Only about 15 %of adolescent moms receive child support
 l Most teen moms finish high school, few go further
 l Moms at risk for chronic educational, emotional, occupational, and financial problems
 l Health risks exist for moms and their babies, most can be reduced with good pre- and post-natal care
 l Teen moms who marry have higher rate of: divorce, poverty, suicide
 l Best outcomes are found if teen mom: remains with family of origin
Parental behaviors that favor positive social outcomes:
ME PEC'D
Monitor whereabouts
Enforce rules
Permit discussion
Explain decisions
Clear Standards
Discipline consistently
Erikson's goals (for Adolescent emot dev)
 l Adolescence is the time when individuals must initiate the process of identity formation, attempting to resolve their identity in both the personal and social spheres in order to form an adult identity
 l Ideal goal is to make a flexible commitment to occupation, sexuality, religion, and politics

Resolving the Identity Crisis
 l Search for one’s “true self” – one of the dominant developmental tasks of adolescence
 l Must resolve
 l How they judge others
 l How others judge them
 l How they judge the judgment processes of others

Resolving the Identity Crisis
 l Identity formation attained through two processes…
 l Crisis/exploration
 l Commitment
 l Influenced both by immediate family and peers
James Marcia's stages
 v Looked at religion, politics, and occupation
 l Identity achievement - Crisis is past, commitment has been made (Miguel is going to be a teacher because he enjoys working with children)
 l Identity foreclosure - No real crisis, commitment has been made by following authority figures (Jen is going to be a teacher because her mom thinks it is a good job for her)
 l Identity moratorium - Crisis is progress, search for commitment continues (Tara is doing FEEP to see if she likes the idea of being a teacher)
 l Identity diffusion - No crisis, no commitment (Jack isn’t really concerned with what career he will chose)
Gender differences in emotional development
 l Erikson (1968) said women cannot complete identity formation until they are married with children
 l No current overall gender differences
 l Differences found in some domains (ex. Girls first priority in achieving identity is to establish and maintain close relationships)
what's the thing about identity dev that I didn't know about?
 l Both identity achievement and identity foreclosure related to sense of well-being
what types of development in adolescence allow for moral reasoning?
• • Formal Operational Thinking
• • Abstract Hypothetical Thinking
• • Mental Co-ordination of multiple perspectives
• • Developing a sense of Identity separate from the adults/family– (Marcia 1966,2002)
Sturm and Drang
This means 'storm and stress'. It's the idea a lot of us have that teens always go through a very rough period and that lots of anger and rocky relationships with parents are to be expected. This is not necessarily true. Most teens and their parents report relatively good relationships.
Stages of Kohlberg’s Moral Development
Stages of Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory
• • Level 1 – Pre Conventional Morality (Piaget’s Heteronomous Morality)
Stage 1 – Obedience & Punishment Orientation (5-6 yrs)
“Its always wrong to steal”; “I’ll be punished if I steal”

Stage 2 – Instrumental Exchange Orientation (7-8 yrs)
Shift from self to others as well, though still very crude reciprocity.
“If the scientist is cheating by asking for more money, it is morally correct for me to steal.”

• • Level 2 – Conventional Morality (A shift that happens in Adolescence)
Stage 3 – “Good child Morality” – Ideal Reciprocity – The Golden Rule (10-11 yrs)
“I would lose all respect of my family if I don’t save my wife’s life / if I steal”
“If I was in my wife’s situation dying, I would want someone to steal the drug for me.”
Stage 4 – Law and order Morality (20-24 yrs)
Shift of focus from interpersonal à Society
“What would happen if everyone started stealing?”

• • Level 3 – Post Conventional Morality (Internalization of universal moral principles that are broader than the societal norms & rules) - Early Adulthood
Stage 5 – Social Contract Reasoning- Creators & Maintainers of Laws – laws can be modified
“It is alright to break a societal law in certain emergency situations”
Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles – Philosophical Ideal – Laws that disobey the personally internalized universal ethical principles can be violated.
“If you don’t steal the drug and save your wife’s life, you will always condemn yourself for it, you won’t have lived up to your own standard of conscience.”
Relation between
Moral Reasoning & Moral Behavior
• • Competing factors in moral choice
• • Self – Relevance of moral goal
• • Social Perspective Taking – Ability to relate
• • Inferential Empathy
• • Degree of internalization of morality
Social Probs and laws
Subjective Well-Being
l Encompasses self-esteem as well as satisfaction with one’s life
l Most adolescents are satisfied and optimistic
l Influential factors
l Greater security
l Economic stability
l Lower levels of stress
l Sense of personal control











Thinking about Politics
l Reasoning about laws in terms of abstract principles (vs. concrete people and events)
l “To ensure safety” vs. “So people don’t steal or kill”
l Appropriate level of social control changes
l When law isn’t working, young adolescents believe it should be enforced more strictly (punishment), whereas older adolescents believe the law should be changed







Thinking about Politics
l Tendency to seek “utopian” systems of life (civil rights, cults, communes, environmental movement)
l At the same time adolescents are increasingly cynical about the possibilities of solving social problems








Fostering Sociopolitical Engagement
Service-Learning Classes (soup kitchen, anti-tobacco program)
l Offer direct experience of social problems
l Stimulates students to think more deeply about social problems
l Result in more complex reasoning over the course of time as students make increasingly clear connections between different social problems.
number of teens who get STD each year
4 million
% of women who are as thin as the typical model
less than 10%
percentage of women using condoms who still get pregnant
15%
Discuss height at maturity
Height at maturity is NOT related to how early/late the growth spurt begins
 Moderate to high correlation between: height at maturity at height at onset of puberty
Growth is asynchronous (different rates). How does it proceed?
Legs à trunk à chest and shoulders, head
Gender Differences in development
Boys…
  gain 2x as much muscle as girls and lose body fat
  develop larger hearts and lungs than girls and are stronger by the end of puberty
Girls…
  gain 2x as much fatty tissue as boys, are healthier than boys, are better at tolerating long term stress and living longer.
Effects of physical activity
Physical activity important for both body and mind
  it increases cognitive functioning, self esteem, body esteem. It also alleviates depression and anxiety.

Girls who play sports are
  80% less likely to have unwanted pregnancy, 92% less likely to do drugs, 3x more likely to graduate from high school
 
Limited P.E. programs available for adolescents today
  Adolescents relatively sedentary today (1 in 6 obese)
  ? Only _________ of high schools offer opportunity for daily exercise
Body image
Developmental Impact of Puberty
Body Image
  During adolescence, girls gain 24+ lbs. of body fat
  Media, however, portrays the ideal woman with a thin, prepubertal
body shape
  Consequently, many adolescent girls are dissatisfied with their body image
  The only other time this type of thinness was this valued was during the 1920’s, another period of an eating disorder epidemic.






Body Image - Girls
Super Barbie doll image
  If Barbie were a real person 6' 0", 100 lbs, size 4.
  Her measurements would be 39"/19"/33“
  She would be unable to walk upright and she could not menstruate or reproduce

  The average woman is 5' 4", weighs 145 lbs, and wears between a size 11-14
  Women (age 18-34) as thin as typical model = 7%
  Girls who said that magazine models influence their idea of the perfect body shape = 69%
  68% of Stanford undergraduate and graduate students, said they felt worse about their own appearance after looking through women's magazines





Eating Disorders
  1 out of 100 white women (age 12-25) are anorexic
  95% of anorexics are female
  5% of anorexics die from their disease
  20% of bulimics have to be hospitalized

  Anorexia and bulimia are caused by many factors including
  Our society’s unrealistic standards of beauty
  Controlling parents who are overly concerned with dieting and appearance
  Low self esteem
  Less social support from friends





Body Image
Besides excessive dieting, girls turn to other unhealthy habits to maintain ‘beauty’…
  Tanning (people get most lifetime sun exposure by age 18)
  Smoking
Smoking
 4 million adolescents smoke
  Initially because of observations watching parents or peers smoke, belief that smoking is relaxing, media images, social pressure, or curiosity. Also related to poor academic performance and absence of supportive adult.
  89% of long term smokers started as teens
  the earlier the start, the more likely to smoke longer
  Teens do not respond well to info about long term effects and have invincibility theory
  Short term effects, such as ? may have more impact on teens
Inhalants
For example: Spray paint, lighter fluid, Whippets, crushed Ritalin
  16% have tried
  Can cause nosebleeds, difficulty breathing, temporary blindness, impairment of major organs, unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, death
  30% of deaths from inhalant use are first time users
Anabolic Steroids
Associated with body image in boys
  Anabolic steroids
  Used by 10% of high school males and 1% of females
  In boys they cause acne, aggression, balding, depression, cancer, hardening of arteries, atrophy of testicles, reduced sperm count, fluid retention, high BP, high cholesterol, impaired immune system, stunted bone growth resulting in shorter height
Importance of calcium for girls
  Calcium very important (especially for girls) because they are building up bone density to prevent osteoporosis later
Drug prevention programs
  Teens have invincibility theory “It cannot happen to me”
  Direct approaches do not show effects on drug-related attitudes and behavior (they do not work)
  Including DARE

  Indirect tactics may be more effective
  teaching realistic strategies to resist drugs
 alternative recreational activities, improved academic skills, self-esteem building
Comprehensive versus abstinence-only sex education
Sex Education
  81% of Americans (75% of parents) want their children to receive a variety of information on subjects including contraception and condom use, STD’s, sexual orientation, safer sex practices, abortion, communications and coping skills, and the emotional aspects of sexual relationships.
  Less than 50% of U.S. public schools now offer information on how to obtain birth control & only a third include discussion of abortion and sexual orientation in their curricula.

Sex Education cont.
  23% (1999) taught abstinence as the only means of reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy
  88% of students who pledged virginity in middle and high school still engage in premarital sex
  Students who break this pledge are less likely to use contraception at first intercourse, and they have similar rates of sexually transmitted infections as non-pledgers
  Students in comprehensive sexuality education classes do not engage in sexual activity more often or earlier, but do use contraception and practice safer sex more consistently when they become sexually active
Primary versus secondary sexual characteristics
Primary-directly involved in reproduction (i.e. ovul and menst for girls, sperm product and ejac in boys)
Secondary – anatomical and physiological signs that are distinguishing, but are not part of reproduction (includes underarm, pubic, facial hair)
Pubescence
Period of rapid growth that leads to puberty (point at which sexual reproduction is possible) . Pubescence takes place earlier for girls (10-12) than it does for boys (12-14).
GLBT developmental risks
97% of public high school students say they
regularly hear homophobic remarks
  22% GBLT youth had skipped school in the past month because they felt unsafe (4% heterosexuals)
  39% of gay students said no one intervened when homophobic remarks were made in school
  28% Gay/lesbian youth drop out of high school
  26% GLBT youth are kicked out of their home when they come out to their families
  GLBT youth make up 20-40% of the homeless young people in the United States
  23% GLBT youth had required medical attention as a result of a suicide attempt (3% heterosexuals)
  30 % of all completed youth suicides are related to the issue of sexual identity
  Most perpetrators of hate crimes against GLBT people are adolescent males
Features of Adolescent Thought
H MFT
Hypothetical
Metacognitive
Forward Thinking
Thinking about conventional limits
l Hypothetical reasoning
 l While a younger child would make a decision without first contemplating the range of possibilities, adolescents can generate and mentally test hypotheses and can also think about situations that are contrary to fact
 l Metacognitive thinking
 l Thinking about one’s own thinking becomes more complex; can also think more deeply about others’ points of view
 l Forward thinking
 l While a younger child is likely to focus only on having a good time right now, adolescents are better able to plan ahead
 l Thinking about conventional limits
 l Adolescents rethink fundamental issues of social relations, morality, politics, and religion; leads to idealism and a search for heroes
Piaget's tasks
Piaget’s “combination-of-variables” problems indicate the presence of systematic problem-solving and understanding of the “structured whole”…
Gender differences on Piaget's tasks
Although there is a pervasive popular belief that males have greater talent in areas that require formal operational thinking (like math and science), current evidence indicates that the capacity to solve formal operational problems develops equally in males and females.
Formal operational thinking
Formal operational thinking = ability to think systemically about all logical relations within a problem, joined with a keen interest in abstract ideas and in the process of thinking
Formal operational thinking is not universal (less than 50% of hs students show it).
Private speech
Speaking to oneself privately either aloud, in a whisper, or silently VERY IMPORTANT
  Increase test performance, ability to concentrate, helps change bad habits, creates mood change, maintains self-regulation, builds self-efficacy
Learning new words
Learn new words in context, using morphological rules (underprivileged), formal definitions (adult dictionaries)