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100 Cards in this Set

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What are Kohlberg's 3 stages of sexual identification?
Sex Role Identity
Sex Role Stability
Sex Role Constancy
Notice differences (skin color, hair texture) but cannot categorize in a meaningful way
At what age does this occur?
By age 2
Can classify, but get confused about labels (‘White’ people are not really the color white),
At what age does this occur?
Preschool (3-4)
get confused about range of people that fit within a single category
At what age does this occur?
Preschool (3-4)
do not understand constancy of race
At what age does this occur?
Preschool (3-4)
Very interested in differences and similarities
Kindergarten (5-6)
becoming more group-oriented,
Kindergarten (5-6)
exploring issues of fairness
Kindergarten (5-6)
Understand racial constancy
Early elementary (7-8)
can understand multi-group membership (Asian-American, woman, mother)
Early elementary (7-8)
What are Kohlberg's 3 stages of sexual identification?
Sex Role Identity
Sex Role Stability
Sex Role Constancy
The Preoperational Stage (roughly ages 2-7)is characterized by what 5 things.
1.Egocentric Thinking
2.Animistic Thinking - Tendency to attribute thoughts, feelings, and emotions to inanimate objects
3.Inability to Conserve
4.Irreversibility is the inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
5.Lack of Hierarchical Classification
are mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
operations
• Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they _______, rather than ____, understand
• Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they cannot, rather than can, understand
The Preoperational Stage spans what yrs?
2-7
the inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one’s own
egocentrisim
The Three mountain experiment was designed to test which principle?
egocentrisim
In terms of the 3 mountain experience, people of what age Realize that the doll doesn’t see what they see, but still select the wrong photo?
6&7 y/o
In terms of the 3 mountain experience, people of what age Pick scenes at random?
4 yr
In terms of the 3 mountain experience, people of what age Can sort scenes a little, but seem unable to disassociate themselves
5
In terms of the 3 mountain experience, people of what age
Reliability select the right photo?
9&10 y/o
In a test similar to the 3 mountain experiment, c. Borke (1975) study looked at perspective taking using Grover in the car, on different angles of the firetruck, children did better at younger age. Why is this?
if know characters, they tend to do better
Tendency to attribute thoughts, feelings, and emotions to inanimate objects
Animistic Thinking
a. Piaget probed into consciousness by asking if different objects could feel different stimuli . He did this in order to test...
Animistic Thinking
Kids Usually use spontaneous movement as a cue to something being “alive”. This is an example of...
Animistic Thinking
c. Post-Piagetians distinguish between _________________ , 4 y/o could detect what was alive or not
c. Post-Piagetians distinguish between self imposed and external movement , 4 y/o could detect what was alive or not
refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when outward appearance changes.
Conservation
Not attained until 6 or 7 years of age even when rows are rearranged right in front of child
one to one matching task
Sucess on the one to one matching task not attained until 6 or 7 years of age even when rows are rearranged right in front of child. The inability to represents is reflective of the inablility to do what?
Inability to Conserve
What are the 3 central reasons why kids can't conserve?
1. Centration
2. Their thinking is perception based, not logically based
3. They focus on the end state rather than the transformation
Most 4 year olds don’t rely on one-to one matching, but instead focus on only one aspect of the lines, usually length, this is called
centering (centration)
. If a child is using one-to one correspondence, and it is destroyed through spacing, they...
will not conserve
. One line LOOKS longer, so it must have more. What principle does this exemplifiy?
Children’s thinking tends to be perceptually based, not logically based. (The perception-based nature of children's thinking also makes it difficult for them to conserve).
What are the forms of racial socialization? Which one is associated with the best outcomes?
Preparation for bias
Promotion of racial mistrust
Egalitarianism
Cultural Socialization – Best outcomes
NEED TO ADD SOMETHING BY WAY OF A DEFINITION FOR THESE.
• Becker (1989) gave children only one line of objects (“there are 8 cups”) and asked them to match another object to it, the result helped them see...
inequality (i.e. if they had spoons left over, then the child could answer no there are not 8 spoons)
Becker (1989) gave children only one line of objects (“there are 8 cups”) and asked them to match another object to it.
4.5 - 5.5 y/o could answer Beckler's task accurately. This suggests....
Piaget under estimated children’s knowledge.
In terms of children's abilities, What 2 things affect performance on conservation tasks?
Specific knowledge and skills
In terms of children's abilities, Reasoning improves as .......
skills and knowledge improve
What distinguish experts from novices?
Cognitive abilities do not distinguish experts from novices, but rather it is detailed and specific knowledge
The inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Irreversability
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences between the groups.
Hierarchical classification
Thoughts about thinking
Metacognition
Putting thoughts or mental states to another person
theory of mind
What does Theory of mind help children to understand?
Theory of mind helps children understand people’s behaviors and beliefs
What is the False belief task designed to test?
theory of mind, metacognition
M&M box, 3 y/o thought everyone would know it contained pencils, better by ...
4-5. This tests theory of mind (metacog)
When do children 1st start to distinguish real from pretend?
• 2 y/o start to do this, but this still confuses children into middle childhood
Even ___year olds become scared and have been shown to hide from monsters in video games. What does this suggest?
8, suggests that the inability to distinguish real from pretend persists into middle childhood.
Parents are demanding and controlling, they stress obedience.
Authoritarian parenting
These parents place firm limits and controls on the child and allow little verbal exchange.
Authoritarian parenting
• Children are often unhappy, fearful, anxious, lack intellectual curiosity, fail to initiate activity, and have weak communication skills
Authoritarian parenting
Behave well when someone is there to enforce rules, but do not internalize rules well.
Authoritarian parenting
• Parents are highly involved with their children, but place few demands or controls on them
Permissive Parenting
children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way
Permissive Parenting
• Children are often aggressive, domineering, and noncompliant.
Permissive Parenting
They tend to have poor impulse control and be relatively immature.
Permissive Parenting
• Parents encourage children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions.
authoritative
• Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturing toward the children.
Authoritative Parenting
• Children are often cheerful, self-controlled and self-reliant, achievement-oriented, maintain friendships with peers, cooperate with adults, and cope well with stress.
Authoritative Parenting
An understanding of oneself in relation to significant others
self-concept
In this stage, children label themselves as boys or girls
Sex Role Identity
In this stage, children become aware that boys grow up to be men and girls grow up to be women.
Sex Role Stability
In this stage, children understand that sex remains the same in all situations.
Sex Role Constancy
What is the order associated with kohlberg's 3 stages of sex role identification?
Sex Role Identity
Sex Role Stability
Sex Role Constancy
What are the two forms of sex role acquisition?
1.Cog dev approach- kohlberg
2. gender shema theory - children acquire schema that guides gender linked interests and behav, use info processing to do this.
process by which external culturally organized experiences are transformed into internal psychological processes that organize how people behave by following social rules.
internalization
the ability to control one's emotions, behaviors, and mental states.
self regulation
the inhibition of an action that is already underway
effortful control
What is the difference between Autonomous & Heteronomous Morality?
heteronomous =morality subject to external controls

autonomous= rules are agreements among people, not decrees handed down by adults
Describe the 3 types of social rules described by social domain theory.
(assoc with moral dev)
The 3 rules vary in how broadly they can be applied.
At the most general level are the MORAL RULES, which cannot be transgressed and are found in all societies
SOCIAL CONVENTIONS are at the next level. They specifiy how males and females should act, what people should wear. They vary across sociaeties. PERSONAL SPHERE RULES are associated with situations in which children make decisions based on their personal preferences
awareness of one's own and others' emotional states, capacity for sympathy and empathy, and ability to differentiate inner and outer emotions.
Socio-Emotional Competence
Identify the categories associated with racial socialization
cultural socialization = emphasizes racial heritage and pride
preparation for bias = stresses racial discrim and prejudice
promotion of racial mistrust = encourages mistrust of the majority race
egalitarianism =emphasizes the equality of members of all races
emphasizes racial heritage and pride
cultural socialization
stresses racial discrim and prejudice
preparation for bias
encourages mistrust of the majority race
promotion of racial mistrust
emphasizes the equality of members of all races
egalitarianism
Which form of racial socialization had best outcomes?
cultural socialization
What are the disadvantages of physical punishment?
PEARL DAD

Parent is avoided

Exploration & initiative reduced

Aggression modeled

Root Cause not adressed

Leads to Child abuse

Developmental outcomes are not better for spanked children

Angers and upsets child

disrespectful to the child
learn
What percent of U.S. children will spend part of their childhood in single-parent family?
50 %
A host of behavioral, social, and academic problems are associated with the single family structure. Why?
S FL SC
SES is greatest factor

Financial stress (Only 73% of entitled parents receive child support and few receive the full amount)
Less supervision while parent is working

Social stigma
Crisis of divorce, if parents were married (HOWEVER there is a selection bias – Problems were most likely present before the divorce)
Between __ and ____ children being raised by gay or lesbian parents
Between 3 and 14 million children being raised by gay or lesbian parents
• Many studies have tried to find difference between children w/ homosexual and children with heterosexual parents. What have they found?
• Researchers conclude these children are “just as healthy on measures of gender identity, sexual orientation, intelligence, moral reasoning, behavior problems, personality, and locus of control” What does this line of research tell us?
• In Ohio, and most other states, children cannot be adopted by nonbiological, same-sex parent. Why is this a prob?
(cannot be covered under health insurance, are not entitled to social security survivor benefits, not entitled to child support/visitation after a breakup)
__ in __ U.S. children currently live in poverty. Where do we rank among members of industrialized world?
• 1 in 4 U.S. children currently live in poverty, second worst in the ‘industrialized’ world
What percentage of poor children are chronically poor?
50%
As of 2002, how many children are uninsured?
7.8 million children uninsured (80% had at least one parent who works full
• Poverty puts children at risk for what sorts of probs?
• Poverty puts children at risk for mental, physical, intellectual, and health (ex. lead poisoning) problems
• By age 18, children will have spent more time watching TV than.....
attending school or doing any other activity, except sleeping
What % of of children’s programming contains violence?
80%
Children’s Saturday morning television contains ____violent acts per hour adult prime time contains ___ per hour),
• Children’s Saturday morning television contains 20-25 violent acts per hour adult prime time contains 3-5 per hour),
• By age 18, children view _____acts of violence including _____ murders
• By age 18, children view 200,000 acts of violence including 16,000 murders
The link between violent television (including superheros) and aggression well documented. Is this a causal or correlational link?
• Causal (not just correlational)
• Cross-cultural studies, with TV newly introduced....
show increase in aggression
• For every hour a child under 3 watches TV each day, risk of attention problems at age 7 increase by...
10%
• For every hour a child under 3 watches TV each day, risk of attention problems at age 7 increase by 10%. Why is this?
(brains become hard-wired and accustomed to fast-paced TV so they find it difficult to pay attention to slow-moving real world.
In terms of childcare, child outcomes are most affected by...
quality of care, not hours in care.
What factors affect the quality of childcare?
PLAN TIC

Physical setting
Licensing requirements
Amount of supervision
Nature of program

Training, satisfaction of caregiver
Involvement by parent
Caregiver/child relationship
Children in childcare are sick ______________________, but they are sick ________________________ when they begin school
Children in childcare are sick more frequently , but they are sick less frequently when they begin school
What are some short term effects of involvement in headstart?
Slightly ahead academically until grade 3 when differences even out.
What are the long term effects of involvemt in head start?
o Increased probability of completing high school
o Increased probability of attending college
o Elevated earnings in one’s early 20s
o Less likely to be charged or convicted of crime.

o We also find suggestive evidence that African-American males who attended Head Start are more likely than their siblings to have completed high school.
o Evidence of positive spillovers from older children who attended Head Start to their younger siblings, particularly with regard to criminal behavior.