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199 Cards in this Set

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What are some of the Language Preferences of Newborns?
• Mother’s voice
• Native language
• Familiar story or poem
• By 5 to 6 months they prefer stories read with pauses in the correct places
• By 9 months they prefer language with natural pattern of stressed syllables
• Newborn communication consists only of ......
crying, stiffening, and turning the face away
In terms of non-verbal communication, what happens at 3mo? at 10 mo?
• By 3 months can smile and gaze to communicate willingness to engage
• 3-4 months will respond differently to facial expression
• 10-12 months will begin to use other’s facial expressions to modify their behavior
When does gestural communication first appear?
around one year
what are the 3 functions of gestural communication?
o Communicate the infants intent (ex. pointing & reaching)
o Help establish joint attention (the focusing of gaze by two people on the same object or event)
o Stand for an object, request, or attribute (e.g. shrugging shoulders)
What is joint attention?
form of gestural communication that involves the focusing of gaze by two people on the same object or event
Distinguish between the following terms
Cooing
Pragmatics
Babbling
Reduplicated babbling
Protoword
Jargoning
Holophrases
Telegraphic speech
CP BR PJ HT

Cooing - open vowel sounds then raspy consonants, appears 1-2 mo

pragmatics = how language is used is social situations, ex. turn taking, 3 mo

babbling = combine consonants and vowels, ex. da, 6 mo.

reduplicated babling= long chains of vowel/consonant syllables (bababa), 6 mo

protoword = aren’t actually words because there is no meaning attached to them (e.g. dada), 6 mo

jargoning = Babbling takes on intonation and stress of actual words in language they are practicing, first words soon follow, 12 mo.

holophrases = Single words that are interpreted by adults to be expressing complex thought (“Milk”)

telegraphic speech = (2 and 3 word utterances that convey a meaning) Mommy no, me milk
What are the terms most commonly associated with verbal communication, in order of appearance?
CP BR PJ HT

Cooing
Pragmatics
Babbling
Reduplicated babbling
Protoword
Jargoning
Holophrases
Telegraphic speech
open vowel sounds then raspy consonants, appears 1-2 mo
Cooing
how language is used is social situations, ex. turn taking, 3 mo
pragmatics
combine consonants and vowels, ex. da, 6 mo.
babbling
long chains of vowel/consonant syllables (bababa), 6 mo
reduplicated babling
____ is related to the language environment and is correlated with later word development
babbling
aren’t actually words because there is no meaning attached to them (e.g. dada), 6 mo
protoword
Babbling takes on intonation and stress of actual words in language they are practicing, first words soon follow, 12 mo.
jargoning
Single words that are interpreted by adults to be expressing complex thought (“Milk”)
holophrases
(2 and 3 word utterances that convey a meaning) Mommy no, me milk
telegraphic speech
• Huge range in the growth of vocabulary
o 12 months-median 6 words (0-52)
o 20 months - median 170 words (3-544)
Does size of vocab vary cross-culturally?
yes
refers to the unique way that adults talk to babies
Child Directed Speech (CDS), previously called Motherese
discuss the prevalence of CDS.
o Can be found in many different languages
o However, the features that distinguish it from adult language may be different
o Deaf parents using ASL with their infants use CDS
• The ability to match specific familiar sound sequences to specific meanings
Word comprehension
What are the 2 approaches to word learning?
1. Referential – people, animals, places, things
 These words usually stand alone
 Make up most of a child’s first 50 words
2. Expressive – whole phrases heard repeatedly
 Just a minute, see you later, mama hold you
Is there a long term effect noted for varying early styles of word learning?
no
Word learning Style may depend on...
language, parents’ approach (labeling, reinforcement, etc.)
If a child were to use doggie” for horse it is said that they have ...... the word
Overextended =When a child uses a word more broadly than is customary
A child tries to tell you that sneakers are shoes, but sandals are not. The child has ...... the word.
underextended = child uses word too narrowly
• We do not learn language in a social vacuum; most children are bathed in language from a very early age.
What theory of language acquisition would say this?
Learning theory- Skinner
What are the 2 Theories of Language Acquisition?
Learning theory- Skinner
Nativist theory- Chomsky
• We need this exposure to language to acquire competent language skills.
What theory of language acquisition would say this?
Learning theory-Skinner
• One study showed that mothers who used a higher level of language when interacting with infants had infants with markedly higher vocabularies. What theory of language acquisition would explain this?
Learning theory-skinner
One of the major criticisms of the learning theory of language acquisition comes from most language experts today, who believe children from a variety of cultures acquire their native language..
without explicit teaching (we do not always correct children, etc.)
Humans are biologically prewired to learn language at a certain time, in a certain way
What theory of language acquisition would say this?
Nativist theory- Chomsky
• Children are born with a language acquisition device (LAD)—a biological endowment that enables them to detect certain language categories, such as phonology, syntax, and semantics.
What theory of language acquisition would say this?
Nativist theory- Chomsky
• The strongest evidence for the biological basis of language is that children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time developmentally, and in about the same order. This • Occurs despite vast variation in the language input they receive (in some cultures, adults do not talk to children under 1 year).
What theory of language acquisition would say this?
Nativist theory- Chomsky
The strongest evidence for the biological basis of language is that ......
children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time developmentally, and in about the same order. This • Occurs despite vast variation in the language input they receive (in some cultures, adults do not talk to children under 1 year).
a biological endowment that enables children to detect certain language categories, such as phonology, syntax, and semantics.
language acquisition device (LAD)
Rephrasing something the child has said in a different way, perhaps turning it into a question
Recasting
Restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
Expanding
What is the diff between recasting and expanding?
Recasting - Rephrasing something the child has said in a different way, perhaps turning it into a question.

Expanding - Restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
• If a child shows interest in something, what 3 things improve communication and help language acquisition?
Commenting, demonstrating, and explaining
Do/Should parents deliberately teach their children to talk?
Parents do not (and should not) deliberately teach their children to talk.
These strategies are used naturally and in meaningful conversations.
Ability to recover from adverse effects, to persevere despite risk factors
Resilience
Environmental and personal factors that are source of resiliency
Protective factors
______ may predispose one to developmental problems and environment may trigger expression of problems via ______
Genotype may predispose one to developmental problems and environment may trigger expression of problems (phenotype)
Idea that early experiences shape later development
Primacy
Characteristics of child and environment interact over time to shape development
Transactional model
Short term, initial feelings parent has for child
Bonding
The lasting emotional bond between a baby and the caregiver
attachment
Distinguish between bonding and attachment.
Bonding - Short term, initial feelings parent has for child

Attachment- The lasting emotional bond between a baby and the caregiver
What are the three Theories of Attachment Development?
• Learning Theory (Feeder responsible for drive reduction)

• Psychoanalytic (Same drive reduction, but effects of early relationship with mom thought to last lifetime)

• Ethological Theory (Genetic. equipped to proximity seek)
Feeder responsible for drive reduction
This is associated with which theory of attachment development?
• Learning Theory
Same drive reduction, but effects of early relationship with mom thought to last lifetime
This is associated with which theory of attachment development?
psychoanalytic
Genetic. equipped to proximity seek
This is associated with which theory of attachment development?
• Ethological Theory
What disproves drive reduction theories?
 Harlow’s monkey
the child’s cognitive construction (schema) of care-giver and self based on past experiences
Internal working model
Serves as basis for all future relationships
internal working model
What are the 3 attachment classifications?
Secure, Insecure/Avoidant, Insecure/Ambivalent, Disorganized/Disoriented
The following features are characteristic of children who are securely attached:
• The child separates from mother and plays
• Checks in periodically with the “secure base”
• Moderately distressed when mom leaves.
• Greets her warmly when returns and accepts comfort if upset.
The child separates from mother and plays
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
secure
• Checks in periodically with the “secure base”
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
secure
• Moderately distressed when mom leaves.
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
secure
Child Greets mom warmly when returns and accepts comfort if upset.
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
secure
What percent of children in U.S. are securely attached?
• 65-70%
Securely attached children tend to have parents who...
 Pay attention to and accurately interpret baby’s signals
 Give appropriate feedback
 Respond quickly enough that child feels like their signals caused the response.
• Baby separates readily from mom to play.
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
Insecure/Avoidant Attachment
• When mom leaves, shows no concern.
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
Insecure/Avoidant Attachment
• When she returns the baby ignores or avoids her, if distressed, no comfort is sought.
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
Insecure/Avoidant Attachment
What percentage of American babies are avoidant.
20%
What percentage of American babies fall into each of the attachment categories.
secure: 65-70
avoidant: 20
ambivalent: 12-14%
disorganized/disoriented:Occurs much less than other three types
Avoidant babies have mothers who are chronically...
unresponsive (ignores cries) or intrusive (shove bottle in mouth even though infant is signaling she is not hungry).
What are some Long-term effects associated with avoidant attachment?
 Significant behavior problems
 Longitudinal studies show children to be disobedient, aggressive and/or socially withdrawn, unpopular with peers, impulsive and lacking self-control, motivation and persistence in learning.
 These children also may exhibit unusual behaviors such as tics, self-stimulation, or self abuse.
 These children tend to lack empathy towards others; when a peer is distressed they may inflict hurt instead of offering sympathy
Children who are attached in this manner tend to have significant behavior problems.
insecure-avoidant
 Longitudinal studies show children to be disobedient, aggressive and/or socially withdrawn, unpopular with peers, impulsive and lacking self-control, motivation and persistence in learning.
Avoidant
 These children also may exhibit unusual behaviors such as tics, self-stimulation, or self abuse.
Avoidant
 These children tend to lack empathy towards others; when a peer is distressed they may inflict hurt instead of offering sympathy.
Avoidant
• Baby stays close to mom, doesn’t explore or play with toys.
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
• When mom leaves, baby is greatly distressed
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
• When she returns the baby seeks her, but then resists or rejects her comfort
This is characteristic of which attachment style?
Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
What are the long term effects of Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment?
 Tend to be overly dependent on teachers for help and attention
 Lack confidence and self-esteem, form friendships less easily, become easily frustrated in interactions with others, and be socially withdrawn from peers.
 These behavior patterns render the child vulnerable to becoming a victim of peers.
 Tend to be overly dependent on teachers for help and attention
Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
 Lack confidence and self-esteem, form friendships less easily, become easily frustrated in interactions with others, and be socially withdrawn from peers
Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
behavior patterns associated with this attachment style render the child vulnerable to becoming a victim of peers.
Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
What % of American infants exhibit Insecure/Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment?
12-14% of babies are Ambivalent
*Avoidant babies tend to have moms that are ___ and ___, while ambivalent babies tend to have moms that are ___ and ___.
Avoidant = parents are unresponsive,intrusive
Ambivalent = inconsistent, unpredictable
• Display contradictory behavior, may smile and then abruptly turn away.
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
• Typically abused, neglected, neurological problems, or parents have some difficulty such as alcoholism.
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
Are there lasting Effects of Attachment?
• Some contradictory research findings
• Attachment classifications tend to remain stable unless environment changes
• The older the child becomes the weaker the association between attachment and desirable behavior (perhaps because of the increasing influence of other factors such as peers)
Distinguish between attachment and temperment.
attachment = lasting emotional bond between baby and caregiver, can be classified as: Secure, Insecure/Avoidant, Insecure/Ambivalent, Disorganized/Disoriented
temperment = Infants can be categorized as easy, difficult, or slow to warm-up
How does infant Temperament Impact Attachment?
• Parents’ ability to react to specific temperament qualities affect interactions and thus attachment
For instance, • A difficult tempered baby may cause parents to loose confidence in themselves as parents and respond inconsistently
Does temperament cause an infant to adopt a particular attachment style?
No-Temperament is important, but doesn’t directly cause a particular attachment style. “Goodness of fit” models are the best.
Attachment is a function of complex interactions between...
o Characteristics of parent
o Characteristics of child
o Characteristics of family (# of children, role of father in childcare, economic resources, etc.)
o Social supports beyond immediate family (medial resources, extended family, etc.)
slower than avg rate of growth due to caregiving (neglect) and feeding problems (like diluting formula) rather than disease or genetics
failure to thrive
In terms of weight gain, babies: Usually double birth weight by ______ and
Usually triple birth weight by ______.
• Then, weight gain _____ _____.
Usually double birth weight by 4 mo
Usually triple birth weight by one yr
Then slows down considerably
rate of weight gain depends upon what 2 factors?
prenatal conditions and genetics
Research shows girls’ bone growth is about ______________________________ of boys at birth, by age 6 the gap is about ___________________ (that’s why girls are taller, boys catch up and surpass at puberty)
Research shows girls’ bone growth is about 4 wks ahead of boys at birth, by age 6 the gap is about a year (that’s why girls are taller, boys catch up and surpass at puberty)
What is true about the feeding patterns of toddlers?
Rate of growth slows down: so toddlers may eat less
• Since they are eating less, what they eat is important
• Open snack time provides sense of autonomy and allows toddlers to recognize hunger cues
What is the best way to encourage good feeding habits in toddlers?
• Gimmicks: do not work in long run

• The best way to encourage good eating habits is by example and by offering a variety of foods (breastfeeding may also help).
In terms of motor ability, what two factors affect when milestones are reached?
maturation and experience affect when milestones are reached
Do motor milestones stay constant or are they different in different cultures and time periods?
Milestones reached earlier or later in different cultures (ex. Infant massage in India) or during different time periods (1930’s infants rolled earlier, slept on tummy)
indicate the time during which each of these motor abilities develop and place them in ascending order:
Reach
Successfully grasp
Pincer grasp
Roll over –
Sit alone –
Creep –
Walk alone
RR SS CP W
Reach - 2.5 mo.
Roll over – 3 mo
Successfully grasp – 4.5 mo.
Sit alone – 5.5 mo
Creep – 7-8 mo
Pincer grasp - 9 mo.
Walk alone – 11-13 mo
What are the risk factors for SIDS?
B. POSER

BORN PREMATURE

PREGNANT TEEN WAS YOUR MOM
ONE YR – YOU WERE BORN ONE YEAR FROM BRO OR SIS
SIBLING DIED OF SIDS
EXPOSED TO SMOKE, HEROIN, OR COCAINE
RESPIRATORY OR GI INFECTION IS INVOLVED
Describe the cause of shaken baby syndrome.
Vigorously shaking an infant, causing brain damage, paralysis, seizures, hearing loss, blindness, speech and learning problems, even death.
How is shaken baby syndrome diagnosed?
Diagnosed by: Unconsciousness, periods of staring, bleeding around the eyes, increased head size (suggesting bleeding around the brain), broken bones or spine damage.
Who is most frequently responsible for Shaken baby syndrome?
70% are men – dad or mom’s boyfriend. If a woman, generally a caregiver rather than the mother.
How can Shaken baby syndrome be prevented?
educate parents/caregivers of the danger.

teach parents how to deal with crying and help them with their own “out of control” feelings

be a source of help for stressed out parents
Distinguish between perception and cognition.
Perception - descriptions of the world that the infant’s brain presents or allows

• Cognition – involves thinking or reasoning of one kind or another, enables the infant to adapt to the world and to solve problems.
descriptions of the world that the infant’s brain presents or allows
perception
involves thinking or reasoning of one kind or another, enables the infant to adapt to the world and to solve problems.
cognition
Gibson & Walk, 1960, Visual Cliff. What did they conclude from this experiment?
Depth perception is inate.
Later depth perception studies on 2 mo. olds showed that children can detect the difference, but aren’t fearful until around 9 months (WHY THEN?)
9 months is when they start to crawl and move around
Depth perception may be due in part to the use of optical cues, but fear...
Depth perception may be due in part to the use of optical cues, but Fear is definitely learned from crawling experience.
According to Piaget, the
1st stage of development is the ________stage. How long does this last? Birth -24 months
According to Piaget, the
1st stage of development is the Sensorimotor stage. Lasts Birth -24 months
There are 6 Substages of Sensorimotor stage. What are they?
1) Reflexes (birth – 1 month)
• involuntary rooting, sucking, grasping, etc.

2) Primary circular reactions (1 – 4 mo)
• repetition (circular) of pleasurable event, involving the self (primary) that initially happened by chance.
• Ex. Sticking out tongue

3) Secondary circular reaction (4 – 8 mo)
• Infant acts on object (secondary to self) and repeats action when result is pleasureable (circular)
• Ex. Shaking a rattle

4) Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 mo)
• intentionality is apparent
• Ex. Riley likes to bang on his keyboard (secondary circular reaction), he also likes to flip the on switch so his keyboard makes noise (secondary circular reaction), around this age he began during his keyboard on so it would make noise before he banged on the keys

5) Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 mo)
• can vary actions of previous stage systematically and flexibly (experiments)
• Ex. Daniel pokes at his clay using varying degrees of force to see how the shape of the clay is affected

6) Representation (18-24 mo)
• prior stages deal with here and now.(This stage doesn’t).
• Can now think about concrete events without acting them out and base actions on: internal mental images and symbols.
involuntary rooting, sucking, grasping, etc. occurs during this stage.
Reflexes (birth – 1 month)
• repetition (circular) of pleasurable event, involving the self (primary) that initially happened by chance
occurs during this stage.
Primary circular reactions (1 – 4 mo)
Infant acts on object (secondary to self) and repeats action when result is pleasureable (circular)
occurs during this stage.
Secondary circular reaction (4 – 8 mo)
Ex. Shaking a rattle
This behavior is associated with which substage of the sensorimotor stage?
Secondary circular reaction (4 – 8 mo)
Ex. Sticking out tongue

This behavior is associated with which substage of the sensorimotor stage?
Primary circular reactions (1 – 4 mo)
Ex. Riley likes to bang on his keyboard (secondary circular reaction), he also likes to flip the on switch so his keyboard makes noise (secondary circular reaction), around this age he began during his keyboard on so it would make noise before he banged on the keys

This behavior is associated with which substage of the sensorimotor stage?
Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 mo)
• Ex. Daniel pokes at his clay using varying degrees of force to see how the shape of the clay is affected
This behavior is associated with which substage of the sensorimotor stage?
Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 mo)
repetition (circular) of pleasurable event, involving the self (primary) that initially happened by chance
occurs during this stage
Primary circular reactions (1 – 4 mo)
Infant acts on object (secondary to self) and repeats action when result is pleasureable (circular)
occurs during this stage
Secondary circular reaction (4 – 8 mo)
intentionality is apparent during this stage.
Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 mo)
can vary actions of previous stage systematically and flexibly (experiments)
this is called..
Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 mo)
Stages prior to this one deal with here and now.(This stage doesn’t).
• In this stage, you Can now think about concrete events without acting them out and base actions on: internal mental images and symbols.
Representation (18-24 mo)
infants’ understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched.
Object Permanence
Track moving objects, quit when hidden happens from
birth-1 mo
Continue to stare briefly where object was
happens from
1 to 4 mo
Search for partially (not fully) hidden object
happens from
4-8 mo
Begin searching for hidden objects, easily confused (preservation error-object put under screen, then moved in full view of infant, infant will stop searching if not under first screen )
happens from
8-12 mo
Goes to where it was last seen (can’t handle hidden displacement-moving screens around with hidden object or first hiding object in palm)
12-18 mo
Will continue to look for hidden objects, not confused by hidden displacement.
18-24 mo
Criticisms of Piaget
Object permanence develops sooner than he thought
· Methodological problem-more recent studies show that infants didn't think hidden objects didn't exist, but rather that two things couldn't occupy same space





· Impossible events research (overhead)
Object permenance is an important area of study because it speaks to..
methodology. We use different methods, we get different answers.
Emotional milestone that is Evoked by a stimulus (6-10 weeks)
Social smile
Emotional milestone that is
In response to active stimuli (3-4 months)
Laughter
Skin temp drops when mom leaves and stranger appears above crib, behavior same. When does this happen?
2-4 months
Social referencing occurs when an infant relies on a trusted person’s emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation. When does this happen?
6-8 months
Stranger anxiety (Helps protect mobile babies) continues until around 24 months
6-8 months
Primary emotions (joy, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust)
When does this occur?
12 months
Secondary emotions (embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, envy) come with ability to think about self in relation to others
When does this occur?
18 months
Can recognize self in mirror
When does this occur?
18 months (same time as secondary emotions appear)
Ability to understand how someone else is feeling
empathy
Empathy depends on:
• The ability to perceive other’s distress
• Some idea of what is causing it
• What might be done to help
• The willingness to go to someone’s aid
often cry when hearing other babies cry
When does this occur?
newborn
Notice other’s distress, but only respond as if they are upset themselves (seek comfort, etc.)
When does this occur?
• 12 months
Begin to try and comfort them, often by giving them something that they find comforting
When does this occur?
• 18 months
Can talk about distress and respond appropriately, by comforting or getting help
When does this occur?
• 24-30 months
widely held beliefs about characteristics deemed appropriate for male or females
Gender stereotypes
Evidence of biological influences in sex role stereotyping includes:
• Cross-cultural studies
• Hormones
• Gender stereotypes are impacted by the behavior of:
 Parents
How?
 Parents
o Treat boys and girls differently (ex. they discourage anger in girls and promote the expression of pain, but accept anger in boys and discourage the expression of pain)
o Research shows they judge infant boys and girls differently, girls were prettier, weaker, softer and more delicate than boys
o They reinforce gender-appropriate play
o They provide gender appropriate toys and structure activities differently for boys and girls
 Teachers and other adults impact gender stereotypes. how?
o Teachers often segregate by gender, implying that there are important differences.
o Teachers react to behaviors based on gender stereotypes
Peers influence gender stereotypes - how?
 Peers
o Reinforce each other for playing with same sex and punish those who play with opposite sex
o Children also punish playing with ‘cross-gender’ toys.
Children between ages 3-6 learn approx how many words per day?
6-9 words a day
By the end of the preschool years children’s vocabularies range from
10,000-14,000 words
In terms of word production, which occurs first, comprehension or production?
Comprehension occurs before production so they may understand more words.
During preschool years children are learning most words from _______.
Prior to this time, adults __________.
During preschool years children are learning most words from the context in which they are used.
Prior to this time, adults often point out objects and name them for infants and toddlers
Some types of words are more difficult because they don’t have specific ___ that help define them. Words like _____ occupy the same place in the sentence, so it may be difficult to infer what they mean
Some types of words are more difficult because they don’t have specific context clues that help define them. Words like under, on and in occupy the same place in the sentence, so it may be difficult to infer what they mean
Verbs typically occupy the same location in English sentences, so even if I make up a word, you can tell it is a verb by how it is used. This is a principle associated with what concept?
Syntactic bootstrapping
• Francisco is WHYNDRITYL to the store
What principle would be associated with solving this problem?
Syntactic bootstrapping
using the knowledge of sentence structure to infer meaning.
Syntactic bootstrapping
when word meanings are learned from only one (or a few) exposures.
Fast mapping
What's the difference between syntactic bootstrapping and fast mapping?
Syntactic bootstrapping- using the knowledge of sentence structure to infer meaning
Fast mapping- when word meanings are learned from only one (or a few) exposures
Distinguish between a phenome and a morpheme.
Phoneme – Specific sounds of speech, such as /b/ vs. /p/

morpheme -smallest unit of meaning
an explicit focus on sounds of words rather than meanings.
Phonological awareness
• Songs with ____ ____ help support an explicit focus on sounds of words rather than meanings.
phonological substitution
sounding out words to spell
phoneme segmentation
Variations in the development of phonological awareness come from...
• Individual differences in phonological sensitivity
• Environmental differences (ex. exposure to activities that provide opportunities to practice)
What are some ways to promote the development of phonolgical awareness?
• Clap out syllables (ex. child’s name)
• Rhyme detection (ex. books, songs, conversation)
• Rhyme generation
• Creating words with same initial sound (alliteration)
• Deleting a phoneme (what do you have if you take the /b/ out of bat?)
smallest unit of meaning
Morphemes
Distinguish between unbound morphemes and bound morphemes.
Unbound morphemes- whole words (ex. go, walk)

Bound morphemes- must be added to a larger morpheme to be meaningful (ex. -ing, -ed)
whole words (ex. go, walk)
Unbound morphemes
must be added to a larger morpheme to be meaningful (ex. -ing, -ed)
Bound morphemes
Govern word formation
morphological rules
Add –ed to the end of a verb to make it past tense. Doing this is governed by...
morphological rules
Using morphological rules when they make sense but are incorrect (The mouses goed to the store)
Overregularization
Children tend to ____ questions before ____.
Children tend to ask what, where, and who questions before when and why.
Which of the following are mistakes that children make when forming sentances?
• In questions subject and verb are reversed
• First attempts at negatives often have the word “no” at the beginning
• Children often delete the subject (“No eat”)
all of these
Place these words in the order in which they are learned:
Behind
Beside
Between
In
In back of
On
under
in,
on,
under
beside,
between,
in back of,
behind
Why are words like the ones below difficult to learn?
in,
on,
under
beside,
between,
in back of,
behind
Locatives are difficult be/c context doesn't help.
Opposites like more/less and bigger/smaller - in what order are these learned?
Opposites like more/less and bigger/smaller -Learn first with number, mass takes longer
Children often experience comprehension difficulties. For instance, they might confuse the words cup and glass. Why is this?
Confuse words with similar functions (cup and glass)
Passive voice doesn’t come until around__. Give an example of the use of passive voide.
5 ½
The ball was thrown by Kate (passive)
Talking about seeds growing into trees.
What type of language is this?
Decontexualized language
Language that can be understood away from the present situation
Decontexualized language
Language about the here and now, transferred face to face
context bound
The following are examples of what type of language?
There is the dog. I am using red paint
context bound
Distinguish between context bound and decontextualized language.
context bound = Language about the here and now, transferred face to face

decontextualized = Language that can be understood away from the present situation
may help develop language that isn’t context bound, because settings, people, and events are recalled.
Autobiographical narratives
Distinguish between Emergent literacy and reading readiness. Which term is favored now.
emergent literacy = literacy is constantly emerging
*Emergent literacy is the current term.

reading readiness = implied that children needed to hit a point in maturation or needed to have obtained enough skills before they could start learning to read
Children learn to recognize letters through their distinctive features. What are some examples of these features?
• Straight/curved lines
• Open/closed curves
• Horizontal/vertical lines
• Spatial Orientation
Children tend to categorize letters that look alike together, they need to learn to focus on the differences instead (ex. ‘m’ and ‘w’ look alike, just their ___ ___ differs)
To which feature of letter recognition is this referring?
Spatial Orientation
Concept that letters represent sounds
Alphabetic Principle
Is the Alphabetic Principle true for every language?
no-• English has phonemes codes as letters
• Chinese has a character for every word
• Japanese has a character per syllable
• So English readers have fewer letters to learn, but we then have to know how to put the few letters into something meaningful since our letters aren’t meaningful alone.
Early preschool children generally ___ form letters adults would recognize
Can not
Scribble writing is common early in preschool period. How is mock writing different from scribble writing?
Include characteristics of letters, but not in the correct format
Is the organization of letters on a page universal?
No - Children must learn that English is read from left to right and top to bottom. This is not universal (ex. Hebrew is read from right to left).
T or F

Both the Concept that letters represent sounds (alphabetic principle) and organization of letters on a page are universal.
No - these things are culture-specific.
Two early indicators that predict later reading success are:
Vocabulary size and knowledge that print represents words.
• Basic phoneme sensitivity