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52 Cards in this Set

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Independent variables vary because of .....while dependent variables vary because of .....
Independent variables vary on their own (ex. race) or because a researcher manipulates them (ex. placement in treatment versus nontreatment group)
Dependent variables vary because of independent variable. These are the outcome variables
Which type of variable is the outcome variable?
dependent variables vary because of independent variable. These are the outcome variables
What is the IV and DV?
Researchers announce:
Girls are better at hopscotch than boys.
IV: gender
DV: skill/ability at hopscotch
What is the IV and DV?
Researchers have told us that a literacy rich home environment is related to a child’s success in kindergarten.
IV: degree of literacy richness in the home
DV: kindergarden performance
Researchers gave a panel of 14 volunteers whole slices of bread with butter spread on one side. No matter what kind of bread the participant received (white, wheat, or pumpernickel), all of the volunteers were able to identify which side of the bread the butter was on. This was the case even when some had their noses pinched with clothespins, where blind folded, or had their hands tied behind their backs.
IV: type of bread, nose pinch, or hands behind backs
DV: whether/not they could decide which side the bread was on.
What is the operational definition of a variable referring to?
Operational Definitions of Variables
Refers to the way a particular variable is being defined within the context of a specific experiment (for the purpose of measurement)
Describe the difference between Correlational vs. Experimental research.
Correlational - Researcher gathers information on already existing groups without altering participants’ experiences
Experimental - Researcher randomly assigns participants to a control group and treatment group, can help determine casual relationship
Define internal validity
To what extent does the independent variable, as opposed to extraneous influences, account for the change in the dependent variable?
What are threats to the internal validity?
Maturation, History, Lack of control
What are the threats to external validity
Selection bias, unrepresentative sample
Define external validity.
To what extent can the results of a study be generalized to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those in the experimental arrangements?
What are the 3 Common Types of Designs Used in Development Research?
1. cross sectional
2. longitudinal
3. sequential
Distinguish between cross sectional, sequential, and longitudinal research designs.
Cross-sectional
Allows us to study similarities and differences among age groups
Quick and less expensive
Cohort effect – Participants differ in historical experience, ex. study on 30, 50, 80 y/o for views on spending
Cannot tells us about SEQUENCES of development, CUMULATIVE effects over time, or CONSISTENCY of behavior over time

Longitudinal Design
Allows us to look at change within a person
Takes a lot of time and money
Sample size usually smaller
Sample attrition - Participants move away, drop out, die
Practice effects - Become “test-wise”
Findings may not generalize to other cohorts

Sequential
Combination of the two
What are some of the drawbacks associated with cross-sectional research design.
Cannot tells us about SEQUENCES of development, CUMULATIVE effects over time, or CONSISTENCY of behavior over time
What is the cohort effect? Which type of research design allows us to make use of the cohort effect?
Cohort effect – Participants differ in historical experience, ex. study on 30, 50, 80 y/o for views on spending
-cross sectional designs do this.
How is what a Cross-sectional design allows us to study different from what a longitudinal design allows us to examine?
Cross-sectional =
Allows us to study similarities and differences among age groups

Longitudinal Design
Allows us to look at change within a person
Cannot tells us about SEQUENCES of development, CUMULATIVE effects over time, or CONSISTENCY of behavior over time

Which study design is this?
cross sectional
What are some limitations of longitudinal design?
Takes a lot of time and money
Sample size usually smaller
Sample attrition - Participants move away, drop out, die
Practice effects - Become “test-wise”
Findings may not generalize to other cohorts
Sample attrition is a problem with what kind of study?
longitudinal
Practice effects are problematic in what kind of study?
longitudinal
Sequential research design is a combination of what two designs?
cross-sectional
longitudinal
Unique problems arise when studying young children. What are they?
Communication barriers
Infant perception
Limited understanding/attention span
Time consuming
Ethical issues (ex. cannot always give informed consent
The results section gives the statistical procedures that were used and the results from these analyses. Is interpretation provided in the results section?
No- only what was found is discussed.
This section of the research paper outlines weaknesses of the study and often suggests areas for future research. What section is this?
The discussion
Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous development.
continuous dev = occurs gradually, adding more of the same types of abililties

discontinuous = occurs abruptly, is very stage-like.
Is Freud's theory dicontinuous or continuous?
Discontinuous - there are stages (for instance:
oral stage, anal stage, etc.)
Is Erikson's theory of psychosocial development discontinuous or continuous?
Discontinuous - crises are stagelike
trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt initiative vs guilt
Are Piaget's ideas about cognitive development discontinuous or continuous?
Discontinuous- stagelike
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
Do not worry if your 2-year-old is not toliet-trained, yet. When he is ready, he will practically train himself.

This statement was most likely made by which type of theorist?
Maturational
Oh, she will grow out of it, just leave her alone.

This statement was most likely made by which type of theorist?
Maturational
Children are not ready for reading until first grade

This statement was most likely made by which type of theorist?
Maturational
Preschools should have a punching bag to children can release anger.

This statement was most likely made by which type of theorist?
Psychodynamic
• • Do not interfere with dramatic play. Let children work out their emotional conflict

Said by..
psychodynam
It is better to feed a baby on demand rather than on a rigid schedule.

said by...
psychodynam
Children who suck their thumbs were not allowed to breast feed long enough.

said by..
psychodyman
Children who answer correctly will receive a gold star.
Learning theory

I'm considering both social learning and (operant, classical, and instrumental) conditioning forms of learning theory.
It is important that children have good models for behavior
Learning theory

I'm considering both social learning and (operant, classical, and instrumental) conditioning forms of learning theory.
You will spoil the baby if you pick him up when he cries.
Learning theory

I'm considering both social learning and (operant, classical, and instrumental) conditioning forms of learning theory.
Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning
classical - involuntary, instinctual behavior.

operant- voluntary behavior
reinforcers increase rate of behavior
punishers-decrease rate of behavior
positives-involve giving
negatives-involve taking away
Does operant conditioning tell us anything about how the behavior originated?
NO
A major premise of Bandura's social learning theory is that we learn thru modeling. According to social learning theory, Do we have to receive a direct consequence to to learn?
NO- social learning states that we can learn from watching others receive consequences.
self efficacy is a term that is associated with which of the theories of child dev?
social learning theory.
Children learn best when they are interested in what they are doing.

Said by...
cog dev theory
Children are active learners

said by...
cog dev theory
Children seek stimulation

said by...
cog dev theory
List the major theories of development.
psychodynamic

learning (including classical, operant, and social learning-bandura)

maturational

cognitive dev - piaget

sociocultural - vygot

developmental systems-brofenbrener ecological
children, supported by teachers should be challenged with math probs slightly harder than they can compute alone.

said by...
sociocultural theory
Mother's stress at work may have an effect on her child's academic performance.

said by...
dev systems
welfare reform affects well being of all children.

said by...
dev systems
thinks about children in multiple environments, including their intxns with those environments...
dev systems.
Focuses on a person's adaptation to social demands as a means of development.
Erikson's psychosocial dev.
Psychoanalytic = psychosexual + psychosocial
psychoanalytic = freud + erikson