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77 Cards in this Set

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Jakobson in the 1930’s created what phonology theory out of the original phoneme concept?
Distinctive Features
Distinctive features was created by whom and uses what (+,-) system?
Created by jakobson in 1930 uses the binary (+, -) system
The binary system determines what?
Specific properties of a sound that serve to signal meaning differences= Binary system
Which term describes the smallest individual sound properties that make up phonemes and these components serve to distinguish one sound from another?
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES
TRUE OR FALSE
SOUND COMPONENTS(FEATURES) Are considered distinctive if they serve to distinguish one sound form another.
TRUE
With distinctive features the clinical implications involve?
Contrasts the features of TARGET sound to SUBSTITUTION. In regard to Therapy it can help the child differentiate between the presence and absence of these features.
(there is a belief that generalization will occur between sounds that have the same features)
True or False
Distinctive features clinical implications involve contrasting the features of a TARGET sound to the SUBSTITUTION.
TRUE
Higher frequency of sound production occurrences and a relative simplicity of the sound production of earlier developing sounds describes the concept of NATURALNESS OR MARKEDNESS?
NATURALNESS: designates 2 sound aspects of earlier developing sounds/ high frequency across languages
Sounds that are more difficult to produce such as later developing sounds are an example of NATURALNESS or MARKEDNESS?
MARKEDNESS: later developing sounds, more difficult to produce, less frequent in languages.
TRUE OR FALSE
GENERATIVE PHONOLOGY uses distinctive features.
TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE
GENERATIVE PHONOLOGY uses distinctive features.
TRUE
What are the two levels of sound representation used in Generative phonology?
Phonological representation, & Phonetic Representation
What term describes the abstract underlying form(mental form) that underlies how people Use language?
Phonological representation
What term describes the modified surface form(what is actually produced)?
Phonetic representation
IS Phonological representation the mental form or the surface form?
Underlying/MENTAL form
Is Phonetic representation the mental form or the surface form?
Modified surface form: how actually produced
Generative phonology uses phonological rules to demonstrate the relationship between the ______________ and the ____________forms.
Phonological and phonetic forms
What term describes the differences in sound patterns that occur between underlying/mental form phonological representation and the surface level (phonetic) representation.
PHONOLOGICAL RULES
TRUE OR FALSE
Phonological Rules are used to explain changes in production based on and not related to morphology/syntax.
TRUE
What rule describes the disordered sound productions in comparison to the target form.
Phonological rules.
TRUE OR FALSE
GENERATIVE phonology uses MARKEDNESS especially when referring to Cognate pairs and sound classes.
TRUE
In regards to classes/features name the order in terms of which is more natural(unmarked)
VL obstruents(fric,aff,stops) > V obstruents
OBSTRUENTS> more natural than SONORANTS(nasals,liq,glides)
Stops>fricative
Fricative>Aff
LOW-Front> other vowels
Close-Tense> OPEN-LAX
Anterior consonants> nonanterior consonants
Concept of naturalness vs. markedness became clinically relevant when it was found that children with phonologically disordered speech usually replace _________ phonemes with more __________ phonemes.
Marked replace w more, Natural phonemes
Sonorants are produced with an open or closed tract?
Sonorants produced with a more OPEN tract.
Obstruents are produced with a complete/narrow constriction or Open tract?
Obstruents= narrow constriction of tract
Donegan & Stampe in 1979 came up with which theory of phonology?
Natural phonology
Which theory of phonology was created specifically to explain the development of children’s phonological systems?
Natural phonology
What is governed by an innate, universal set of phonological processes?
PATTERNS OF SPEECH
PATTERNS OF SPEECH govern what?
An innate , universal set of phonological processes
What type of process describes a mental operation that applies in speech to SUBSTITUTE for a class of sounds or sound sequences presenting a common difficulty to the speech capacity of the individual.
PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS: mental operation/ substitute sounds/ speech capacity of individual
Name the mechanisms that account for changes in a child’s innate phonological system that is continuously revised in the direction of the adults phonological system.
Limitation, Ordering, Suppression.
TRUE OR FALSE
NATURAL Phonology assumes a child's Innate phonological system is continuously revised in the direction of an adult phonological system.
TRUE. revision from child to adult phonological system occurs using LIMITATION, ORDERING, SUPPRESSION
When does Limitation occur in Natural Phonology?
LIMITATION: When differences between the child's and adult's system become limited to only SPECIFIC sounds, sound classes, or sound sequences
When does Ordering occur in Natural phonology?
ORDERING: Occurs when SUBSTITUTIONS that appreared to be Unorganized and random become more ordered
When does suppression occur in Natural Phonology?
SUPPRESISON : occurs when a PREVIOUSLY USED phonological process is NO LONGER USED. Child moves from INNATE speech patterns to adult form.
What is occurring in natural phonology when a child's speech patterns move from the innate patterns to an Adult Form?
Supression
What is occurring when Substitutions that appeared to be unorganized and random become more ordered?
Ordering
What is occurring when teh differences between teh child's and adult's systems become LIMITED to only specific sounds, sound classes, or sound sequences?
Limitation
Which phonology theory was specifically designed to explain the development of children's phonological systems?
NATURAL PHONOLOGY
Name the phonological processes used in NAtural Phonology.
Whole word and syllable processes, Assimilatory(harmony), & Segment change(Substitution),
Who is 1987 made classifications to account for Differences found in children with disordered speech under Natural Phonology?
Gromwell:1987/ Classifications for diff found in children
Name the classification Gromwell used.
Persisting normal processes, Chronological Mismatch, Systematic Sound preference, Idiosyncratic processes, Variable Use of processes
Which classification according to Gromwell uses phonological processes BEYOND the age that is Typically Seen?
Persisting Normal Processes
Which classification according to Gromwell uses earlier developing processes that are still used along with Later Developing processes?
Chronological Mismatch
Which classification according to Gromwell uses a single phonetic realization for several different Phonemes?
Systematic sound preference
Which classification according to Gromwell uses patterns that are unusual in the speech of normally developing children?
Idiosyncratic Processes
Which classification according to Gromwell uses one target sound in 1 context that may be active but not in another or depends on context.
Variable Use of Processes
(diff processes may be operating on the same target phoneme)
What term describes A group of Phonological theories understanding SEGMENTS as Governed by more Complex LINGUISTIC DIMENSIONS such as STRESS, Intonation, and Metrical/rythmical Lingusitic Factors?
Non-linear (multi-linear) phonologies
With Non-linear (muti-Linear) phonologies what linguistic Dimensions govern?
Stress, Intonation, Metrical/Rythmical lingusitic Factors
Name the Types on Non-Linear (multi-Linear) phonologies.
Auto Segmental Phonology, Metric Phonology, Feature Geometry
(uses Stress, Intonation, Metrical/Rythmical Factors)
What are the commonalities between the PHONOLOGY THEORIES?
Differential between 2 levels of sound presentation.
Phonetic Level, & Phonemic Level
HOW is a Phonetic LEvel described?
Phonetic Level: with sounds (phones/ALLOPHONES) as CENTRAL UNIT ( can be verified acoustically)
How is a Phonemic Level Described?
Phonemic Level: Presented as Phonemes
In terms of LINGUISTIC FUNCTION ( ability to determine meaningful units in a language)
Name the whole word and syllable processes.
FCD, WSD, Reduplication, Consonant cluster simplification/(cluster reduction/substitution), Epenthesis, Metathesis, Coalescense, ICD
Name the Assimilatory processes (Harmony)
Progressive, Regressive, Velar, Nasal, Labial
NAme the Substitution Processes (SEGMENT CHANGE)
Fronting, Backing, Stopping, gliding, Affrication, Vowelization, Denasalization, Deaffrication, Glottal Replacement, Voicing, Devoicing
Which assimilation occurs when sound causing sound change is PRECEDING affected SOUND?
PRogressive Assimilation
Which Assimilation process occurs when sound causing Change FOLLOWS affected sound?
Regressive Assimilation
Which assimilation occurs when a NONVELAR sound assimilates to a VELAR sound?
Velar Assimilation
Which assimilation occurs when a NONNASAL sound Assimilates to NASAL sound?
Nasal Assimilation
ex. fun> NUN
Which assimilatory process occurs when a NonLABIAL sound sound is assimilated to a Labial Consonant?
Labial Assimilation
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when a segment, usually schwa, is inserted in word other than in initial position
EPENTHESIS
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when there is a Transposition or Reversal of 2 segments (sounds) in a word.
Metathesis
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when features form 2 adjacent sounds are combined so 1 sound replaces 2 other sounds?
Coalescense
Ex. Tree> fee
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when there is Deletion of Consonant in Initial position.
Initial Consonant Deletion
TRUE OR FALSE
INITIAL CONSONANT DELETION can occur at the word or syllable level.
TRUE
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when there is a deletion of FINAL COnsonant of SYLLABLE OR WORD
FCD
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when unstressed syllable is deleted
WSD
Which Whole word/Syllable process occurs when syllable or portion of syllable is repeated or duplicated
Reduplication
What are the 2 types of Consonant Cluster Simplifications? Define
Cluster Reduction: reduce to 1 consonant
Cluster Substitution: Sub of 1 member of cluster
A fricative being replaced by an Affricate occurs in affrication what phonetic term that describes consonants would describe this change?
MANNER CHANGE
Fronting is what type of Consonant change?
Place Change
Backing is what type of Consonant Change?
Place Change
Denasalization is an example of what type of consonant change?
Manner change
Cognate pairs differ in?
Cognate PAirs differ only in VOICING
Homorganic is defined as?
Articulated in the same area of the vocal tract, as (t) and (n).
HOMORGANIC
Similar place of articulation