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81 Cards in this Set

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Definition of learning disabilities is a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in acquistion and use of which modalities?
Listening , speaking , reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities
Learning disabilities is presumed to be what type of dysfunction?
A CNS Dysfunction (central nervous system)
TRUE OR FALSE
Learning disabilities is a result of other handicapping conditions but may appear with them
FALSE
Learning disabilities is NOT a result of other handicapping conditions but may appear with them
Name a few characteristics that are mentioned most often in regards to learning disabilities.
Hyperactivity, Attention Deficits(distractability, or perseveration), Motor deficits (coordination problems, clumsy), Perceptual, Communication Deficits, Impulsivity, Cognitive Deficits, Orientation Deficits
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Attention deficits means?
Distractability or PERSERVATION
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Motor Deficits means?
General coordination problems, clumsy
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Perceptual means?
motor deficits- (difficulty in integrating visual or auditory stimulus with motor response)
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Communication deficits means?
Delays in speech and language
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Cognitive deficits means?
Memory and concept formation
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Orientation deficits means?
Poorly developed spatial or temporal concepts
In regards to learning disabilities the characteristic of Orientation deficits means?
Poorly developed spatial or Temporal concepts
A child with learning disabilities has specific learning deficits, meaning they have issues acquiring which modalities?
Reading, writing, or arithmetic skills
(realm of RSP)
Name the specific learning deficits children with learning disabilities have.
Information processing perspective, Information-processing model, Oral language deficits, Cognitive abilities deificts, Written language, auditory processing, metacognitive and metalinguistic abilities
What is the most commonly used processing perspective?
Information processing perspective-
1. focus on information-processing skills NOt specific deficits
2. PERCEPTION, attention, & Memory interact and controlled by higher-order cognitive structures that organize, direct, and control lower processes
True or false
Information processing PERSPECTIVE Focuses on SKILLS not SPECIFIC DEFICITS.
TRUE
INFO PROCESS PERSPECTIVE FOCUS ON SKILLS NOT DEFICITS
With information-processing perspective,
Perception, Attention, and Memory interact and is controlled by?
HIGHER-ORDER COGNITIVE structures that organize, DIRECT, and control lower processes
In the info-Process-perspective Perception, attention, and memory INTERACT and are controlled by Higher order cognitive structures that do what?
ORGANIZE, Direct, and control Lower Processes
TRue or False
Language disorder is seen as being related to higher order controls or strategies with info-processing perspective
TRUE
The Information Processing Model Input includes what aspects?
Auditory, visual, tactile stimuli(sensory data) that is transmitted to central processing MEchanism (BRAIN)
With info processing model input of auditory, visual and tactile stimuli are transmitted to where?
Central-processing mechanism (BRAIN)
When input of auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli go to central processing mechanism they are analyzed as well as?
INTEGRATED AND STORED
(Inforrmation processing MODEL)
OUT PUT IS?
BEhavior of individual, which acts as feedback or additional input to system
TRUE OR FALSE
Individuals can differ cognitively in 2 areas
TRUE
Short-term memory and processing speed or INformation and skills learned through experience
TRUE OR FALSE in the information processing model
STRUCTURES CAN BE CHANGED
FALSE
STRUCTURES CAN NOT BE CHANGED
SKILLS/Information in LONG TERM MEMORY including strategies to compensate can be ADDRESSED
TRUE OR FALSE
SKILLS OR INFORMATION IN LONG TERM MEMORY INCLUDING STRATEGIES TO COMPENSATE CAN BE ADDRESSED IN THE INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL
TRUE
With the Information PRocessing MOdel what strategies are emphasized?
Teaching strategies
If there is an Oral deficit in preschool this will often indicate what?
Later Language Disabilities
Name a few PRESCHOOL language deficits that often indicate later language disabilities.
1. May not Like being read to or follow story
2. Difficulty with pre=academic concepts
3. Word-finding problems and problems following directions
4. Primitive syntax and inadequate morphology
5. Delays in pragmatics and phonology
(EARLY INTERVENTION IS IMPORTANT)
If a child has Primitive Syntax and inadequate morphology what type of deficit does this indicate?
ORAL LANGUAGE DEFICIT
If a child has difficulty with pre academic concepts what type of deficit does this indicate?
Oral language deficit
Language deficits for a School age child include?
1. Problems with complex morphological forms
2, Problems with complex syntax
3. Problems with semantics
4. Problems with phonology
5. Problems with pragmatics
(complex morphological forms, complex syntax, semantics, phonology, pragmatics)
True or False
Language deficits of a school age child include problems with phonology including inconsistent errors.
TRUE
Problems phonology, including inconsistent errors are SCHOOL AGED LANGUAGE DEFICITS
TRUE OR FALSE
PROBLEMS with PRAGMATICS, complex communication are a Preschool language deficit
FALSE
PRAGMATIC, complex communication problems is a SCHOOL AGED language deficit
TRUE OR FALSE
Problems with Complex Syntax and complex morphological forms are Preschool language deficits
FALSE problems with complex syntax and complex morphological forms are a SCHOOL AGED LANGUAGE DEFICIT
When you attend selectively to important attributes and hold one piece of information in memory at a time is this normal perception,attention , and memory?
NORMAL
If you learn to attend to important aspects of communication and use categorization and VERBAL REHEARSAL this is a part of normal perception , attention, and memory
TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE
If you have deficits in cognitive ability this means?
YOu have issues with perception attention and memory
What type of learners are children with learning disabilities?
PASSIVE LEARNERS they need to be taught strategies
TRUE OR FALSE
IF a child with learning disabilities has deficits in cognitive abilities which include perception, attention, and memory you can teach strategies to help PROCESS information.
TRUE
DEFICITS COGNITIVE ABILITIES = teach strategies to help PROCESS Information
What do we use to process verbal information?
Syntactic structure and categorization
If a child has problems with short term VERBAL memory it is because they have problems with?
Problems with short term VERBAL memory= problems in USING STRATEGIES
If a child has problems with using syntactic structure and categorization this will cause a problem processing what?
VERBAL INFORMATION
WHAT TYPE OF CHILDREN ARE PASSIVE LEARNERS?
LEARNING DISABLED
WHAT IS THE LARGEST LEARNING DISABILITY SUBGROUP?
DEFICITS IN WRITTEN LANGUAGE (include reading)
Deficits in written language includes what?
INFORMATION processing problems with skills involved in reading
Reading PERFORMANCE- product of readers cognitive and linguistic abilities, prior knowledge, and mastery of specific reading skills
Reading performance includes what skills?
A product of a readers cognitive and Linguistic abilities, prior knowledge, and Mastery of SPECIFIC READING skills
If a child has phonological processing difficulties this means what?
Child has problems with SOUND SYMBOL relationships and segmenting words into SYLLABLES and PHONEMES
DEFICITS IN AUDITORY PROCESSING includes what skills?
PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING- problems with SOUND SYMBOL realtionships, segmenting words into syllables and phonemes, problems with short and long term memory for verbal material,naming, and word finding
If a child has problems with sound symbol relationships, segmenting words into syllables and phonemes this is a deficit in what process?
DEFICIT IN AUDITORY PROCESSING -(phonological processing difficulties)
IF a child has problems with short and long term memory for verbal material, naming, and word finding what type of deficit is this?
DEFICIT in AUDITORY PROCESSING
If a child has reading performance and information processing problems (skills involved in reading) what type of deficit do they have?
DEFICIT IN WRITTEN LANGUAGE
IF A CHILD HAS PROBLEMS WITH perception, attention, and memory what type of deficit do they have?
DEFICITS IN COGNITIVE ABILITIES
IF a child has general coordination problems, clumsy they have what type of deficits?
MOTOR DEFICITS
If a child has difficulty in integrating VISUAL or AUDITORY STIMULUS with motor response this is what type of deficit?
PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR DEFICITS
If a child has poorly developed spatial or temporal concepts this is what type of deficit?
ORIENTATION DEFICIT
If a child has distractibility or perseveration what type of deficit is this?
ATTENTION DEFICIT
If a child has delays in speech and language what type of deficit is this?
COMMUNICATION DEFICIT
If a child has a problem with memory and concept formation what type of deficit is this?
COGNITIVE DEFICIT
NAME SPECIFIC LEARNING DEFICITS
problems acquiring reading, writing, or arithmetic skills
METACOGNITION DEFINE
ABILITY to study OWN THOUGHT PROCESSES and to USE appropriate strategies
ABILITY to study OWN THOUGHT PROCESSES and to USE appropriate strategies is what?
METACOGNITION
METALINGUISTICS is the ability to do what?
ABILITY to Reflect on properties of language
TRUE OR FALSE
Poor readers are AWARE of their failure to understand and their trouble with choosing strategies.
FALSE
Poor readers are often UNAWARE of their own failure to understand and their trouble with choosing strategies
(DEFICIT IN METACOGNITIVE & METALINGUSITIC ABILITIES)
TRUE OR FALSE
THERE ARE 2 types of deficits in writing skills
TRUE
1) problems underlying cognitive and language processes required for writing
2) Problems due to Interaction of underlying abilities and other components involved in writing
IF a child has problems due to interaction of underlying abilities and other components involved in writing it is what deficit?
DEFICIT IN WRITING SKILLS
If a child has problems in underlying cognitive and language processes required for writing what type of deficit is it?
DEFICIT IN WRITING
TRUE OR FALSE
Underlying cognitive and language processes are required for writing.
TRUE
WHAT IS DYSGRAPHIA?
INABILITY to learn motor behavior for writing
DEFICITS IN WRITING SKILLS CAN INCLUDE WHAT?
handwriting, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, vocabulary, syntax, formulation, and organization of ideas
What skills are needed for acquisition of written language?
-METACOGNITIVE skills(concept of text structure and need to monitor writing during task)
-Able to write at reasonable rate
-Memory for spelling of words, including visual and motor sequence for writing words
when using your metacognitive skills involved in acquiring written language it is because?
you need a concept of text structure and need to monitor writing during the task
TRUE OR FALSE
You must be able to write at a reasonable rate to acquire written language
TRUE
Memory for spelling words include?
VISUAL AND MOTOR SEQUENCE or writing the words
(skill needed for the acquisition of written language)
What is the most common disorder of written language?
PROBLEMS EXPRESSING thoughts through written language
TRUE OR FALSE
Once reading and oral language are treated, writing and spelling will no longer be a problem
FALSE
EVEN WHEN READING and ORAL language are treated, writing and spelling MAY BE PROBLEMS
IF a child has disorders of written language this includes what?
Problems:
Expressing thoughts in writing,
spelling, omit words, confuse word order, use incorrect verbs, pronouns, and word endings, leave out punctuation, problems with organization(no overall structure), MEchanical problems
With disorders of written language they have mechanical problems which includes what?
spelling, grammatical correctness, capitalization, and punctuation
TRUE OR FALSE
A child can fall farther behind in written language as they get older?
TRUE
The assessment of learning disabilities is conducted by?
PSYCHOLOGIST
The assessment of Learning disabilities can also involve other personnel such as whom?
RSP TEACHER
WHEN assessing of learning disabilities usually conducted by psychologists they often look for discrepencies between what?
ACHIEVEMENT(academic performance) and Estimated potential (IQ)
(if there is a significant gap ex. reading is 75 & (IQ) is 100 that is a significant gap.)