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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How would you describe how neural processing occurs in the brain?
In a loop type system that is always running but may be regulated for function.
Damage to the brain that disturbs the regulation of neural processing loops results in what?
A shift out of homeostasis resulting in unchecked and unbalanced processes. This results in abnormal brain function.
What are four ways the brain can be organized?
1. Left vs Right
2. Anterior vs Posterior
3. Hierarchical Processing
4. Cortical vs Subcortical
What are four specializations of the left hemisphere?
1. Speech, reading and writing
2. Praxis - skilled motor movements
3. Verbal memory
4. Processing detail
What are six specializations of the right brain?
1. Arousal, self awareness
2. Spatially directed attention
3. Emotion and affect
4. Nonverbal memory
5. Visuospatal and gesalt processing
6. Non-language sound, music
Which hemisphere's functional prognosis is better when lesioned?
The left hemispehere has a better functional prognosis when lesioned because the patients are aware of their deficits and can on them.
What is unique to right hemisphere lesions?
Patients tend to not be aware of them.
Where do inputs and ouputs generally enter and exit from the brain/spinal cord?
Inputs usually enter dorsally and outputs usually exit ventrally.
What are areas posterior to the central sulcus generally involved in?
1. Processing information from the enviroment
2. Sensory gating
3. Sensory association
Areas anterior to the central sulcus generally are involved in?
1. Planning and formulating cognitive and behavioral goals
2. Run hypothetical situations to evaulate "if I did something this way"
3. Incorporate behavior relevance, reinforcement value and emotion into cognition
What gathers all the sensory information coming in and combines these biulding blocks into action, behavior and cognition? What type of processing is this?
1. Multimodal association cortex
2. Hierarchical
What structures act like machinery to carry out orders from the cortical center?
Subcortical structures
What are four jobs of the subcortical structures?
1. Initiation
2. Cessation
3. Modulation
4. Control
Besides being a relay station, what does the thalamus modulate?
1. Consciousness
2. Arousal and Vigilance
What two qualities make up emotional tone? What controls this emotional tone? What is the purpose of emotional tone?
1. Arousal and vigilance
2. Thalamus
3. Keeps a tonic stimulation to the cortex to keep it primed to react to enviromental stimuli
What is the foundation for higher attentional processes? Why?
1. Thalamus
2. It is linked to every major area of the cortex
What processes is the basal ganglia involved in?
1. Initiation, cessation and maintance of action
2. Also has a role in motor, cognitive and behavioral function
What is the dorsolateral area involved in?
What is the lateral orbitofrontal area involved in?
Inhibition of processes
What is the anterior cingulated area involved in?
Integration of limbic and cognitive processes
What sort of disorder are preservation and intrusion symptoms of?
A hypercognitive dysfunction of the BG
A diminished fluency/semantic search effectiveness (can't use words rapidly) is a symptom of?
A hypocognitive dysfunction of the BG
OCD, mania, gambling, addiction and affective lability are symptoms of?
A hyper-emotionally guided dysfunction of the BG
Avolition and flat affect are sypmtoms of?
A hypo-emotionally guided dysfunction of the BG
What is the main job of the cerebellum?
It receives the motor plans from the corticospinal tract and evaluates them using "reality" inputs from the limbs and send the information back to the cortex
Cognitive ataxia and dysmetria of thought are symptoms of what?
A dysfunction of the cognitive aspects of the cerebellum
Cerebellar emotionally guided behavior disorders include(2)?
1. Affective lability
2. Psychiatric symptoms
What are the four domains of cognition?
1. Motor and sensory
2. Language
3. Attention
4. Executive function
A lesion to the premotor area or SMA can result in?
1. Akinesia
2. Bimanual Dyscoordination
A lesion to the multimodal association cortex results in what?
What is apraxia?
The inability to perform skilled motor movements NOT due to impairments in basic motor movements, basic cognition or impaired comprehension.
What are some specific areas where a lesion could cause apraxia?
1. Corpus callosum
2. SMA
3. Inferior parietal lobe
What allows communication between the two hemispheres? What especially uses this for communication?
1. Corpus callosum
2. SMA's
A lesion of the corpus callosum involving the dyscommunication of the SMAs results in what?
Alien hand
What do you see with "alien hand"?
The hand is still connected to higher cortical areas but no longer connected to lower cortical areas. This means it is not as inhibited as it should be. This results in the hand acting out on its own.
A lesion where will cause conditions such as visual loss, somatosensory loss or auditory loss?
Primary sensory level
A lesion in the sensory association center results in what?
What is the impairment of object recognition in the presence of relatively intact basic perception and language?
What is the agnosia for faces called?
What allows for obeject recognition in agnosia?
The fact that agnosia is a single sensory defect and the other sense's input can help you identify the object.
What is the result of a lesion of the multimodal association center in regards to sensory cognition?
1. Hemispatial neglect
2. Visuospatial integration deficits
What are two areas that act like specialized areas of language?
1. Broca's region
2. Wernicke's region
Which area gives meaning to words?
Wernicke's area
Which area allows one to talk?
Broca's region
What connects Wernicke's area and Broc's area?
Arcuate fasiculus
What is used as a shortcut for repetition of words.
Arcuate fasiculus
A(n) (anterior/posterior) lesion results in active language problems.
A(n) (anterior/posterior) lesion results in receptive language problems.
If one has fluent speech but it does not make any sense, they have?
Wernicke's aphasia
If one is non-fluent with intact comprehension, they have?
Broca's aphasia
If you have fluent speech but cannot comprehend, you have?
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia
If you have non-fluent speech but normal coprehension, you have? No impaired repetition.
Transcortical Motor Aphasia
General level of responsivity
Realignment of sensory organs
Processing one stimulus over another
Selective attention
Simultaneous processing of stimuli
Divided attention
Manipulation of information in attention span
Working memory
Is modulation of attention a anterior or posterior function?
What mediates the modulation of attention?
Cortical Basal ganglionic loops
What is the shifting of attention from one thing to another referred to as?
Stimulus pull
What part of the brain is responsible for planning and goal formation, organization, sequencing, set thinking and abstract thinking?
Dorsolateral frontal lobe
What part of the brain is responsible for inhibition, behavioral and cognitive modulation and evaluating relevance and reward
Orbital frontal lobe
Failure to initiate ideas or courses of action
Impaired initation
Inability to control impulses
Impaired inhibition
Decreased mental flexibility
Impaired set shifting
What gives rise to personality?
Executive function
What is the point of convergence of cognitive, emotional, and motivational aspects of behavior?
Executive function