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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Atom
contains Proton, Neutron, Electron
Acid
pH less than 7
Air Reactivity
material can react or ignite if they are exposed to air
Biological Agents and Toxins
produce disease and are living microorganisms that can mutate and become more deadly
Boiling Point
temp of transition from liquid to gas
Catalyst
controls rate of chemical reactions by speeding it up or slowing it down
Endothermic
heat absorbing
Exothermic
heat Producing
Chemical Interactions
2 or more chemicals are incompatible
Chemical Reactivity
substances propensity to release energy or undergo change
Compound, Mixture
separate elements that bond together to form a mixture
Compunds
some elements cannot exist in unstable conditions, they bond with themselves, or other elements to form compounds
Concentration
amt of Acid/Base compared to Amt of Water
Corrosivity
concentration of hydrogen ions in the material being used
Critical Temperature
min Temp at which a gas can be liquified no matter how much pressure is applied
Critical Pressure
pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to it's liquid state
Element
substance made up of one kind of atom
Expansion Ratio
amt of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temperature
Flammable/Explosive Range
diff between the upper and lower flammable limits
LEL
min Concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source
UEL
max vapor to air concentration above which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source
Fire Point
temp when enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning
Flash Point
minimum temp at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will NOT continue to burn
Halogenated Hydrocarbons
decompose into smaller, more harmful elements when exposed to high temps for long periods of time
Ignition Temperature
min temp a material must be raised before it will ignite
Inhibitor
added to products to control their chem. reaction
Instability
materials that decompose spontaneously, polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable
Ionic and Covalent Compounds
materials Made through the sharing or transfer of electrons
Metals and Non-Metals
metals form Ionic Bonds with non-metals, and non-metals form covalent bonds with non-metals
Salts
is an ionic bond involving a metal and non-metal that results in a transfer of electrons
Non-Salt
covalent Bond involving two non-metals that results in a transfer of electrons
Irritants
cause respiratory distress and copious tearing
Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
Max safe storage temp (MSST)
max temp that Organic Peroxide may be stored safely
Melting Point
temp at which a solid becomes a liquid
Freezing Point
temp at which a liquid converts to a solid
Mixture
substance with more than one molecule physically mixed together, but not bonded together
Miscibility
tendency or ability of 2 or more liquids to dissolve in each other
Nerve Agents
substances that interfere with the central nervous system
Organic
materials that are living or once were living
Inorganic
materials that lack carbon-chains but may contain a carbon atom
Oxidation Potential
combination of anything with oxygen or propensity to yield oxygen
pH
hydrogen ion concentraton
Polymerizaton
chem reaction when small molecules form larger molecules
Radioactivity
ability of a material to emit radioactivity
Saturated Hydrocarbons
materials in which the carbon atoms are linked by only single covalent bonds
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
materials that have at least one multiple bond between carbon atoms
Self-accelerating Decomposition Temperature (SADT)
irreversible decomposition will begin when some portion of the mass of organic peroxide reaches this temp
Solution
mixture with all ingredients completely dissolved
Vapor Pressure
pressure of vapor above the liquid in a container
Vapor Density
weight of a vapor compared to AIR
Vesicants (blister agents)
extremely toxic, with symptoms not appearing for min, hrs, or days
Volatility
ease at which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state
Viscosity
measure of thickness of a liquid
Water Reactivity
sensitivity of a material to water
Parts per Million/Billion
degree of hazard and values used to establish exposure limits
Lethal Dose (LD50)
cause of death of 50% of a group exposed by any route other than inhalation
Lethal Concentration (LC50)
amt of material in the air that is expected to kill 50% of a group (inhalation)
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
an OSHA term for max concentration to which 95% of people can be exposed for 8 hrs a day / 40 hrs a week
Threshold Limit Value Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA)
max concentration, to which a healthy adult can be exposed for 8 hrs a day / 40 hrs a week
Threshold Limit Value Short-Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL)
max avg concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed for up to 15 minutes
Threshold LImit Value Ceiling (TLV-C)
max concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed w/o risk of injury
Immediately Dangerous To Life and Health Value (IDLH)
max level where a healthy worker can be exposed to 30 min w/o suffering irreversable health effects
Alpha
positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials
Beta
can damage skin tissue. Class A and SCBA will protect
Gamma
causes skin burns and can damage internal organs
Units of Measurement for Radioactive Exposure
activity, quantity gamma, and absorbed Dose
Rad
radiation absorbed dose
REM
the reontgen equivalent man
Reontgen
international unit of intensity of X-Rays or Gamma Rays
Half-Life
measure of the rate of decay of a radioactive material. time needed for a given amt of radioactive material to change to another nuclear form of element
Inverse Square Law
the effect from a localized source spreads uniformly throughout the surrounding space
Time, Distance, and Shielding
methods of protecting oneself from harmful exposures to radiation