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91 Cards in this Set

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When was the first documented use of an ambulance?
1485, during the Seige of Malaga, used by military with no medical care provided.
When was the first documented civilian use of an ambulance in the United States?
1865 for the Commerce Hospital of Cincinnati, Ohio.
When was mouth to mouth resuscitation developed?
1956, by Dr Elan and Dr Peter Safar
"Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society" was written in 19___.
1965
"Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society" was also called the:
"White Paper"
"Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society" was written to address what identified weakness in the EMS?
Lack of training, lack of laws and standards, poor quality of ambulances and equipment, and lack of communications between ambulance and hospital personnel. It identified the fact that more people were killed in automobile accidents than in the Vietnam War.
"Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society" identified the need for:
and organized and funded EMS system.
What is the history of the text Emergency Care for the Sick and Injured, AAOS
It was first released in 1967, and was the first textbook for EMS personnel.
When was 911 first reserved by American Telephone and Telegraph?
1968
Where, when, and who began was the first paramedic program?
Dr Eugene Nagel, Miami, Florida, 1969.
Helicopters were first used for medical response during the:
Korean War.
Prior to 1940 most ambulances were hosiptal based. What lead EMS to be adopted by fire departments and police?
Lack of manpower and fiscal strife following WWI. Ambulance positions were often used as punishment in police and firre departments.
This TV show ran for 8 years during the 1970's, and inspired many to become EMS providers.
"Emergency" This show helped to lessen the perception of EMS positions as punishment.
The EMS System Act of 1973 aimed to:
established federal grants to fund studying and planning an support EMS system development, including establishment and initial operation, expansion and improvement, EMS training and research.
The American Medical Association recognized Emergency Medicaine as a profession in:
1975
The Trauma Care System Planning and Development Act was passed in:
1990.
The Trauma Care System Planning and Development Act lead to the designation of:
Trauma Centers and regionalization of speciaity trauma care.
In 1975, Nancy Caroline, MD, was awarded the contract for the first:
EMT-Paramedic National Standard Curriculum developed for the NHTSA.
EMS providers are permitted to provide medical care in the field by the:
delegated authority of physicians.
Direct medical control is:
Communications between field personnel and a medical control physician. Also called "on-line" medical direction.
Indirect medical control includes:
establishment of system policies and procedures, education, protocol development, quality assurance, and quality improvement. Also called "off-line" medical direction.
Protocols
Policies and procedures for medical care and other components of EMS care.
Standing Orders
field medical interventions that can be completed without direct (on-line) medical control.
Reciprocity
An agency or association grants certification or licensure to an individual who has similar certification or licensure from another agency.
Certification
An agency or association grants recognition to an individual who meets its' qualification through satisfactory completion of a course or education program.
Licensure
A government agency grants permission to engage in a given occupation.
Ethics
Rules or standards that govern the conduct of members of a particular group. (Ethics are not laws)
System Status Management (SSM)
A dynamic posting method or event-driven deployment of EMS resources.
Fixed-post staffing
EMS respond from centrally located stations.
Peak-load staffing
Combines system status management and fixed post staffing. During predictable hours of high demand , additional ambulances are placed at strategic locations.
Tiered response
BLS and ALS units are dispatched based upon call nature and interrogated information.
Health Insurance Portablity and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires all healthcare providers to protect:
patient privacy during all aspects of medical care including claims processing, data analysis, utilization review, and quality assurance.
Voting
A process by which the repeater station receiving the strongest incoming signal is chosen to rebroadcast that signal.
Encoder
A device for generating unique codes or tones that are recognized by another radio's coder.
Decoder
A device that receives and recognizes unique codes or tones sent over the air.
Hertz
A measurement of radio frequency, one cycle per second.
Band
A group of radio frequencies close together on the electromagnetic spectrum.
Trunking
A system to expedite radio transmission by automatically routing, usually by computer, the transmission to the next available frequency in the order they are received.
Biotelemetry
The process of transmitting biological data over distance, usually by radio.
Modulator
A device that transforms electrical energy into sound waves.
Simplex transmission
Both transmission and reception occur on the same frequencies.
Duplex transmission
Allows simultaneous two way communications by using two frequencies, works like telephone communication, functions like simplex because the user must release the transmit button to hear the response.
Multiplex transmission
A method of radio transmission in which voice and other data (biotelemetry) can be transmitted simultaneously by use of multiple frequencies
Ten-code system
Radio code system published by the Association of Public Safety Communications Officers that uses the number "10" followed by another code number. It is no longer favored, standard English is recommended.
Rescue
To free from danger or confinement.
Safety Officer
Knowledge and authority to intervene in unsafe rescue situations.
Disentanglement
The process of freeing a patient from wreckage, to allow for proper care, removal, and transfer.
Extrication
The use of force to free a patient from entrapment.
Mass Casualty Incident (MCI)
An incident involving a large number of patients.
Disaster/Catastrophic Incident
A mass casualty emergency that overwhelms both local and regional EMS and rescue resources.
Incident Command System
A management program designed for emergency response in situations requiring special resources (rescue, HazMat, MCIs)
Incident Commander
The individual in charge of and responsible for all activities at an incident when the Incident Command System is in effect.
Sector
A component of the Incident Command System consisting of a group of rescuers performing similar tasks at an incident.
Sector Officer
The person supervising a group of rescuers who are performing a similar function such as extrication, treatment, or transportation.
Triage
Act of sorting patients by severity of illness or injury.
Extrication Sector
Responsible for freeing victims from wreckage and managing them at the accident site.
Hazard Zone
An area of rescue operation that poses a significant physical threat to rescuers as well as victims.
Primary Triage and Treatment
Identification and treatment that targets life-threatening problems-defined as a compromise of LOC, airway, breathing, or circulatory status (ABCs).
Site Safety Officer
Assigned by the Incident Commander to oversee incident safety.
Treatment Sector
Responsible for collecting and treating patients in a centralized treatment area.
Transportation Sector
Responsible for obtaining and coordinating all patient transportation.
Staging Sector
Responsible for assembling fire, police, EMS, and other vehicles and apparatus to be ready for deployment in an area close to the incident site.
Supply Sector
Responsible for obtaining and distributing supplies at a major incident.
Triage Sector
Responsible for sorting patients according to severity.
START
Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, patients are classified as follows:
Dead/Non Salvageable-obviously dead or with mortal wounds Critical/Immediate- critical injuries impairing ABCs
Delayed-no immediate life threats
METTAG
Four colored system to categorize and tag patients during triage:
Red-critical;immediate transport
Yellow-less serious, delayed transport
Green-no or mild injuries, transport unnecessary
Black-dead or unsalvageable
Burnout
Coping mechanisms no longer buffer the job stressors. It can compromise personal health and well-being.
Stress
Physical or psychological arousal.
Stressor
Any agent or situation that causes stress.
Critical Incidents
Events that provoke a powerful emotional impact and cause acute stress.
Acute Stress
A reaction that occurs soon after a catastrophic event that has a powerful emotional impact on the rescuer.
Critical Incident Stress
A reaction that occurs soon after a catastrophic event that has powerful emotional impact on the rescuer-synonymous with acute stress reaction. Also described as a normal person's reaction to an abnormal situation.
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
A form of group support, developed by Jeff Mitchell, PhD, to help resuers cope with highly stressful events.
Delayed Stress Reaction
A stress reaction that occurs days, weeks, or months after a critical incident-also called a post-traumatic stress disorder.
Cumulative Stress Reaction
Results from continuous exposure to work and non-work related stressors, also called "burnout".
Anxiety
An emotional state caused by stress that produces physical symptoms:
Heart palpatations
Difficult or rapid breathing
Dry mouth
Chest tightness or pain
Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps
Flushing, diaphoresis, fluctuation in body temperature
Urgency or frequency of urination
Dysmenorrhea, or decreased sex drive
Aching muscles or joints
Backache or headache
Increased blood pressure
Increased blood glucose levels
Increased catecholamine production
Resuced peristalsis in digestive tract
Pupillary dilation
Stages of Death and Dying
Denial and Isolation
Anger-"Why Me?"
Bargaining-Agreement "I won't die until after the holidays"
Depression-"Who will care for the children?"
Acceptance-often accompanied by fear and despair
These emotional stages often occur in this order, but may spiral back and forth regressing and moving forward. The stages are experienced by dying patients and by surviving loved ones.
Extrication
The use of force to free a patient.
Disentanglement
The process of freeing a patient from wreckage.
Sector
A component of the Incident Command System consisting of a group of rescuers performing similar tasks.
Sector Officer
A person supervising a group of rescuers within a sector.
Triage
The act of sorting patients by severity of illness.
Staging Sector
Responsible for assembling police, fire, EMS, and other resources for ready deployment.
Transportation Sector
Responsible for obtaining, coordinating, and recording patient transport.
Burnout
Coping mechanism no longer buffer job stressors.
Critical Incidents
Events that provoke powerful emotional impact and acute stress response.
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
A formal support group that meets 24-48 hours following a major event.
Critical Incident Stress Defusing
An informal support group meeting immediately following a critical incident.
National Association of EMT's
An agency whose goal is national recognition of the EMS profession, professional advancement in EMS, and national standardization of education and continuing education.
CN III
Pupils
CN X
Vagus nerce, parasympathetic innervation.