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35 Cards in this Set

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what are the 5 stages of carcinoma development
1. initial transformed cell gives rise to pre neoplastic pop
2. clonal cells that are similiar progress to higher dysplasia
3. more changes lead to carcinoma in situ
4. cells become metastic carcinoma
5. cells have similiar characteristics as precursor cells, but have unique characteristics of there own
In culture how often do mam cells divide
24 hours
what are the two major steps of regulation in the cell cycle
1. entry into the S phase and into the M phase
what promoting factor regulates entry of the cell cycle to the S phase
SPF S phase promoting factor
what composes SPF
CdK cyclin-dependent kinase and cyclins
what regulates the Rb retinoblastoma tumor suppressing factor
CdK Cyclin-dependent kinase
what does unphosphorylated Rb bind and inhibit
transscription factor E2F
what does E2F do
transcription factor which is necessary for the transcription genes required for S phase
what inhibits SPF CdK
CdK-interacting protein Pic 1/WAF/p21
what regulates the entry into the M phase
MPF
what is MPF composed of
cdc2 and cyclins
what does cdc2 do
phosphorylates nuclear histone and lamin
what is the purpose of phosphorylating nuclear histone and lamin
these are required for chromosome condensation and nuclear membrane breakdown.
what is the most common gene mutated in human carcinomas
p53
what is normal p53 responsable for
sensing cell abnormalities and shutting down cell division Or Apoptosis
what does wild type p53 do in a cell speciclly what does it turn on
Pic1/p21
T or F in a normal cell the levels of p53 are high and degraded slowly
F low and fast
what are carcinomas derived from
epithelia cells (kidneys pancreas ect)
what are sarcomas derived from
mesodermal cells (blood bone ect)
what is the most common type of human cancer
carinomas
T or F carcinomas develop in a single step prosses
F multi-step as evidence in the non-linear developmental line
what two familial genes have been discovered to be involved in colon cancer
fap
hnpcc
what is the fap gene responsible for
codes for porteins that do cell adhesion
what does hnpcc gene do
invovled with DNA repair
what are the 3 major proteins involved in Mismatch nucleotide repair
Mut s-initiation and recognition
Mut h- structural for other proteins to bind
Mut L - same as mut H
what type of cancer can Hep C and B cause
liver carcinoma
what can papillomaviruses cause
cervical carcinoma that binds and inhibits p53
what are SV40 and polyomavirus
small dna virues taht could have roles in human cancer
What does epstien barr virus cause
mononucleosis
burkitts lymphoma in africa
what does retrovirus cause
adult T-cell leukemia and kaposi's sarcoma
what are the 3 genes required by a retrovirus
gag, pol, env
what is RSV
rous sarcoma virus
what does RSV do
causes tumors in animals and their genomes contain extra genes

RSV contains the src gene
what is the difference in a proto-oncogene and an oncogene in RSV
the oncogene lacks the C-terminal region
so it can't regulate the autophosphorylation of tyrosine 527
what form of src gene is active in human cancers
C-src