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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
describe the basic biology of H. influenzae
gram neg small rods/coccobacilli (look like rice grains on gram stain). oxidase pos, LOS, fastidious, chocolate agar, pili, non siderophore iron uptake, mucosal pathogen, normal flora of some in nasopharynx, X (hemin) and V (NAD) factors for growth, typeable strains have capsule, non typeable do not
diseases caused by typeable H. influenza? non typeable H. influenza?
invasive diseases like meningitis, epiglottitis, septicemia, and bacteremia. Non invasive diseases like otitis media (common cause of children's otitis media), sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia
how does Hi get to the meninges?
resp tract infection, blood stream or lymoh, to the BBB
where do you get a sample to culture if the child has epiglottitis?
from the blood
what is the structure of the Hib strand capsule and why is it so important?
polyribosylribitophosphate (PRP) which is what they used for the vaccine
what pathogens secrete an IgA protease?
Neisseria, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae
how fraction of bronchitis cases is due to H. influenza?
1/4 just as S. pneumoniae is 1/4 too
how is H. influenza transmitted?
via resp. droplets
what has the Hib vaccine done for the US? other countries?
20000 cases a year down to 50 in US. Some countries cannot afford vaccine and thus Hib still has 3 mil cases a year and 700K deaths a year worldwide
who is at risk for H. influenza?
complement deficiency and splenectomy bc H. influenza is affected mainly by antibodies
what is diagnostic for H. influenza?
culture org from suspected infection site except epiglottis and gram stain
since children from 6mo to 3 yr are not good at making B cell antibodies against carb antigens, how does the Hib vaccine work.
they conjugate the PRP capsule with tetanus or diphtheria toxoid to increase a T cell response
if pt has not gotten Hib vaccine, what is the treatment for H. influenza?
3rd generation cephalosporin bc of penicillin resistance, Rifampin is given as prophylaxis for all contacts
describe the disease caused by H. ducreyi.
a chancroid, which is a soft painful ulcer on genitalia, it is an STD
what disease is caused by H. aegyptius?
bacterial conjunctavitis
basic biological properties of bordetella pertusis?
gram neg rod/coccobacilli, aerobic, non-fermentative, beta hemolytic via adenylate cyclase toxin, oxidase positive, many virulence factors, facultatvie intracellular path
describe the catarrhal stage of whooping cough.
colonization pd, 1 wk or so, cold like symptoms, bacteria adhere to ciliated epi in upper resp tract, can culture org pharyngeally, 3 adherance toxins: filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin and Ptx (pertussis toxin), antibiotics work in this phase
describe the paroxysmal stage of whooping cough.
whoop sound cough in 50%, vomitting, hard to find orgs, antibiotics do not work. toxins: tracheal cytotoxin, pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin
describe the convalescent phase of whooping cough.
diminished paroxysmal cough, development of secondary bacterial pneumonia, rare encephalopathy
when B. pertusis is adhering to ciliated resp. epi cells, what is FHA binding to?
integrin CR3 on macs and galactose or sulfatide of epi cells
binding of B pertusis to the upper resp tract ciliary epi cells effects mechanical host immunity how?
prevents us from coughing crap up like we usually do when stuff gets in our cilia
how does the pertusis toxin work?
AB toxin and ADP ribosylator, inhibits Gia, leading to activation of adenylate cyclase and thus increased resp secretions and mucous
how can B pertusis increase adenylate cyclase?
via pertusis toxin (see other card) or adenylate cyclase toxin (toxin that is inactivated adenylate cyclase until it goes in the cell and is activated by calcium/calmodulin; it is also a B hemolysin)
what does B pertusis's tracheal cytoxin do?
it is a part of the peptidoglycan that is released and kills ciliated epi cells,
epidemiology of B pertusis?
#1 bac killer worldwide for which a good vaccine exists, #7 ID killer, humans and primates are reservoirs, mainly hits infants, but adult infection on the rise as well as overall infection...
how should B pertusis be diagnosed?
culture in early stage, and verify with PCR, check vaccine history
what is the antibiotic treatment for B pertusis?
erythromycin in early stages only
describe the vaccine for B. pertusis.
acellular pertusis with pertusis toxin and FHA
what org is related to H. influenza, has a leukotoxin that likes neutros, causes peridontitis, bite wound infections, and endocarditis? treatment?
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, cephalosporins, tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones