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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lying face up
Lying face down
Which cells give rise to the spinal cord?
Neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube
Neuroepithelial cells proliferate into which 3 layers?
Ventricular, mantle, and marginal layers
Mantle layer cells form what?
4 columns: 2 basal plates ventrally and 2 alar plates dorsally...gray matter
Marginal layer forms what?
Undergoes myelination and forms white matter
What do the basal and alar plates become eventually?
Basal becomes ventral horn matter while alar becomes dorsal horn matter
In general white and gray matter contain what?
White contains axons and gray contains neuron cell bodies
Ventricular layer forms what?
Ependymal layer (lining of the central canal)
What is the spinal cord enclosed in?
In the vertebral canal of the vertebral column
How many vertebrae are there and how are they subdivided?
33 vertebrae subdivided as follows: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused), and 4 coccygeal (fused)
Fused sacral and coccygeal vertebrae form what?
Fused sacral vertebrae = sacrum

Fused coccygeal = coccyx
Intervertebral Discs
Separate vertebrae in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions
Intervertebral foramina
Holes that permit passage of vessels and nerves into/out of vertebral canal
Does the spinal cord span the entire length of the veretebral canal? Why?
No, because of unequal growth rates.
Where does the spinal cord end?
At the conus medullaris (~L1-L2)
Where are the spinal cord englargements found? Why are they there?
1. Cervical enlargement: found in C5-T1, provide innervation to upper extremities

2. Lumbar enlargement: found in L1-S3, provide innervation to the lower extremities
Comprised of 3 connective tissue layers: dura matter, arachnoid, and pia
Epidural (extradural) Space
Area b/w dura mater and vertebral column filled w/fat
Dural Sac
Sac formed around the spinal cord, begins at the foramen magnum to S2
External Filum Terminale
End of dural sac, anchored to the coccyx. aka coccygeal ligament
Subdural Space
"Potential space", expandable if needed
Arachnoid Mater
Part of meninges, lines dural sac, not attached to dura
Subarachnoid Space
Located b/w the arachnoid and pia mater, has CSF (access via lumbar puncture)
Pia Mater
Part of meninges, cannot be separated from spinal cord
Internal Filum Terminale
Continuation of pia mater after ther conus medullaris, joins external filum and inferior limit of dural sac
Denticulate Ligaments
Sent from pia to fuse dura, anchor spinal cord w/in vertebral canal
Spinal Cord Segment
Portion of the spinal cord that develops from 1 somite (segments of mesoderm), has 1 pair of spinal nerves attached
How are spinal roots connected to the spinal cord?
By rootlets collectively known as the dorsal and ventral roots
Dorsal Root
Posterior, SENSORY
Ventral Root
Anterior, MOTOR
The spinal nerve divides into what 2 branches?
1. Dorsal primary ramus (DPR)

2. Ventral primary ramus (VPR)
1. DR
2. VR
3. DRG
4. DPR
5. VPR
6. WRC + GRC
7. SN
Name the parts.
Dorsal Primary Ramus (DPR)
Goes to the back region
Ventral Primary Ramus (VPR)
Travels around body wall and distributed primarily to the neck, trunk, and limbs
Dorsal Root Ganglion
Associated with the dorsal root
White Ramus Communicans (WRC)
Associated with sympathetic system
Gray Ramus Communicans (GRC)
Associated with sympathetic system
What are considered "typical" spinal nerves?
T2-T12 in which DPR travel to back and VPR travel to neck, trunk, limbs
What are considered "atypical" spinal nerves?
Spinal nerves in the cervical, lumbar, sacral, and T1 b/c VPR don't just travel around body wall--form nerve plxuses and travel out into limbs/extremities
Nerve Plexus
Network of mixing nerves, only formed by VPR
In general, how do spinal nerves exit the vertebral column?
Through the intervertebral foramina
How do cervical spinal nerves exit the vertebral column?
Exit SUPERIOR to their same numbered vertebra (i.e. C5 nerve passes through intervertebral foramen b/w C4 and C5 vertebrae)
How does the C8 nerve exit the vertebral column?
Since there's not C8 vertebra, it exits superior to T1
How do the spinal nerves after C8 exit the vertebral column?
They exit inferior to their corresponding vertebra
Cauda Equina
Collection of nerve roots in the lumbar and sacral regions
Carries impulse TOWARDS cell body
Carries impulse AWAY from cell body
Neuron terminology: Nucleus
Collection of cell bodies in CNS
Neuron terminology: Tract
Collection of axons in CNS
Neuron terminology: Ganglion
Collection of cell bodies in PNS enclosed by CT covering
Neuron terminology: Nerve
Collection of axons/dendrties in the PNS enclosed by CT sheath
Type of neuron structure in which have 1 process that splits into 2 (very common in PNS)
Afferent Neuron (provide definition and neuron structure)
Conduct impulses TOWARDS CNS, pseudounipolar, sensory
Efferent Neuron (provide definition and neuron structure)
Conduct impulses AWAY from CNS, multipolar, motor
Somatic Structures
Derived from somites; include skeletal muscle, skin, bones, and joints, generally involved in moving
Visceral structures
Include organs, glands, blood vessels (inside body stuff), general involved in involuntary actions
What are the four general functional types of neurons?
Mixed Nerves
Nerves that contain both sensory and motor neurons
Afferent impulse from skin, skeletal muscles, bones, ligaments and tendons
Afferent impulse from organs, glands, mucous membranes and blood vessels
Efferent impulse to skeletal muscle
Efferent impulse to smooth and cardiac muscle, secretory impulses to glands
Segment of skin associated with each spinal cord segment and enrve pair
Cutaneous Nerves
Nerves that innervate the skin
1. GSA
2. GVA
3. GSE
4. GVE
Name the type of general functional neuron.
Which ribs do not articulate with their own vertebral bodies?
1, 11, 12
How is it possible that we can do lumbar puncture?
Spinous processes separate in flexion
What is the purpose of the mamillary processes on lumbar vertebrae?
Attachment of muscles
Orientation of zygaphophyseal joints favor what type of mov't in the thoracic region?
Orientation of zygaphophyseal joints favor what type of mov't in the lumbar region?
Flexion, extension, and lateral bending
Abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature
Abnormal increase in lumbar curvature
Abnormal lateral curvature accompanied by rotation of vertebrae
Spina Bifida
Verteral arches fail to close so meningnes/spinal cord may/may not protrude
Spina bifida occulta
Laminae of L5 and/or S1 fail to develop normally and fuse
Spina bifida cystica
Severe, herniation of meninges
Defect in vertebral arch (pars interarticularis), common site L4 and L5
Bilateral defect of pars interarticularis separating vertebrae into 2 pieces, anterior displacement of L5 body on sacrum
What are the extrinsic muscles of the back and what innervates them?
By CN XI/accessory nerve:
1. Trapezius

By ventral/anterior primary rami:
2. Latissimus dorsi
3. Rhomboid Major
4. Rhomboid Minor
5. Levator Scapulae
6. Serratus posterior superior and inferior
What are the intrinsic muscles of the back and what innervates them?
By dorsal/posterior primary rami:

(Superficial to deep)
Splenius capitis
Erector spinae
Semispinalis capitis
What do the muscles in the R suboccipital triangle do?
Total of 4 small muscles, assist w/extension and lateral bending at atlanto-axial joints, rotation of head at C1 and C2
What innervates the trapezius?
Accessory Nerve/CN XI
What innervates the latissimus dorsi?
Thoracodorsal nerve
What innervates the rhomboid major and minor muscles?
Dorsal scapular nerve
What innervates the levator scapulae?
Dorsal scapular nerve (also VPR C3-C4)
What innervates the splenius, semispinalis capitis, and erector spinae?
Dorsal primary rami
What is the action of the trapezius?
Elevates, depresses, retracts, and rotates the scapula
What is the action of the latissimus dorsi?
Extends, adducts, medially rotate humerus
What is the action of the rhomboid major and minor muscles?
Retract scapula
What is the action of the levator scapulae?
Elevate scapula
What is the action of the splenius?
Extends, rotates head and neck
What is the action of the semispinalis capitis?
Extends and rotates head
What is the action of the erector spinae?
Extend head; extend and laterally flex vertebral column; regulate flexion of vertebral column
Epidural vs. Spinal block
Epidural: Anesthesia injected into epidural space

Spinal: Anesthesia injected into subarachnoid space (usually L3-L4)
Why might a patient experience a headache after a spinal block?
B/c of reduced CSF volume
Superficial extrinsic back muscles move what?
NOT THE BACK! Move pectoral girdle and upper limb
Where does the trapezius originate? Insert?
Originate at occipital bone, ligamentum nucahe, and the spinous processes

Insert at spine of the scapula and acromonium; lateral 1/3 of clavicle
Where does the latissimus dorsi originate? Insert?
Originates at thorocolumbar aponeurosis (T6-L5 vertebrae, iliac crest)

Inserts on medial side of the humerus
Where do rhomboid major and minor originate? Insert?
Originate at vertebral spines

Insert at medial border of the scapula
Where does levator scapulae originate? Insert?
Originate: Cervical transverse processes

Insert: Superior angle of the scapula
What do the intrinsic back muscles move?
Move the head and vertebral column
Where do the splenius muscles originate? Insert?
Originate: Spinous processes

Insert: Skull and cervical transverse processes
Where does the erector spinae originate? Insert?
Originate at sacrum and iliac crest

Insert on ribs and transverse processes
What are the 2 main classifications of joints? What specific types of joints fall under them?
1. Synarthroses (fixed): Fibrous and Cartilaginous

2. Diarthroses (movable): Synovial
What are the types of fibrous (solid) joints?
1. Sutures
2. Gomphosis
3. Syndesmoses
What are the types of cartilagenous (solid) joints?
1. Synchondroses
2. Symphyses
Which types of synovial joints are monoaxial?
1. Pivot (trochoid)
2. Plane (Gliding)
3. Hinge
Which types of synovial joints are biaxial?
1. Saddle
2. Condylar
Which types of synovial joints are multiaxial?
1. Ball and socket
What borders the triangle of auscultation?
1. Trapezius
2. Latissimus dorsi
3. Medial border of scapula