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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Antimicrobial agents
agents that kill microbes or inhibit their growth.
removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life
commercial sterilization
exsposure to sufficient heat to kill spores of Clostridium botulinum
reduction of microbes presents to a safe levels
microbicidal agents:

bactericidal agents
kills bacteria
fungicidal agents
kills fungi
kills viruses
microbistatic agents
effect is temporary and growth resumes when agent or microbes are removed
destruction of vegetative pathogen present
absence of microbes from an area
fungicidal agents
kills fungi
kills viruses
identify three different approaches in controlling the growth of microbes. prevent spoilage of food. prevent microbes from causing disease. prevent microbial contamination and undesirable alteration of materials.
list the following according to their resistance to antimicrobial agents.1.envelope viruses 2.naked viruses 3.endospores 4.typical vegetative bacteria 5.mycobacteria 6.prions
prions-endospores-mycobacteria-vegetative bacteria-naked viruses-envelope viruses
what is the ideal concentration of an antibacterial agent?
least amount of concentration it takes to kill the microbes
explain how the following affect the action of chemical agents a. washing and scrubing
reduces # of microbes especially with foam disinfectant after you wash your hands
b. heat
is microbicidal: it increases activity matter
combines with some agents reducing activity
list two physical methods of control that are microbastatic
cold and desiccation (drying)
identify three targets of physical and chemical agents
1.plasma membrane: 2.cell proteins:(enzymes are particularly sensitive)3.nucleic acids: (result in disrupted function and death).
compare the action and exposure of steam heat and dry heat.
1.steam heat is high temp. high presure. dry heat is high temp. longer exposure.
describe the typical conditions for sterilization using the steam autoclave.
uses pressurized steam for sterilization typical conditions are 15 psi. (steam presure), 121 degrees C for 15 minutes.
define the following terms
using high temp. to kill all pathogens in foods. A disinfectant process.
2. equilevant treatment
methods using different exposure or dosages and getting the same results
3. thermal death time
minimal time required to kill all pathogens in liquid suspention at a given temp.
4. decimal reduction time
time required to kill 90% of bacteria at a given temp.
5. ionizing radiation
x-rays, gamma rays, and high energy e-
6. filtration
a porous barrier used to remove microbes from liquid
7. desiccation
removal of H2O is microbistatic
membrane filters
used to remove bacteria and viruses from fluids can sterilize heat-sensitive fluids.
HEPA filters
cleans the air used in OR's or homes.
dried microbes used for storing
Describe three pasturazation techniques
1. Classic method= 63 degrees C for 30 minutes. 2.(HTST)(high temp. short time 72 degee C for 15 seconds 3. ultra-high temp. 140degree C for less than a second.
discribe how high pressure kills microbes and how it is used to control their growth.
high presure will alter proteins by denaturing and kills microbes when in conjuction with heat example: autoclave
identify the groups of germicides to which the following belong, the action and use of each. 1)ethyl alcohol:
group:Alcohol action:denature proteins use:solvant: disinfect instruments and degerming skin.
group:phenolics action: denature proteins and damage membrane use:standard for new agents. use:(bisphenol) effective antibacteria in phisohex (only in prescription)
group:phenolics action:denatures proteins and damages membrane. use:disinfectant of surfaces.
4)tincure of iodine
group:Halogen action:altered proteins, except slower. use;antiseptic used, but not much anymore because too iritating.
group:Halogen (iodophor) action:alter proteins use:antiseptic for skin and less iritating.
6)chlorine gas
group= Chlorines: these fall under Halogens: action=alter proteins use=used to disinfect water supplies
group= Phenolics action= denatures proteins use= throat spray,and anticeptic for surgery
group=Halogens action= alter proteins use=disinfect restrant equipment and swimming pools.
group=Halogens action=alter proteins use=kills HIV and HBV
10)silver nitrate
group=Heavy Metals action=alters proteins at intermediate level use=AgNo3 was used in babies eyes at birth but was replaced with antibiotic salve that inhibits Chlamydia
11)copper sulfate
group=Heavy metals action= alters proteins use=copper sulfate is algicidal
12)zinc oxide
group=Heavy Metals action=alters proteins use= zinc oxide used as antifungal agent in paints
group=QUATS QUATS is a low-level antibacteria more effective against gram + bacteria action= damage surface membranes use=antibacterial in mouth wash and contact solutions example:CEEPRYN in cepacol mouthwash.
group=Phenol action=denatures proteins and damages membranes use= antibacterial agent in soaps
group=Formaldihyde that falls under Aldehydes action=alters proteins use=preserve specimens and as an embalming fluid
group=Alderhyde action=alters protreins use=sporocidal at extended exposures
group=Biguanidines action=damage membrane use=contacts-surgical hand scrub-preoperative skin prep.
what is cold sterilization?
ionizing Radiation=action=produces high-energy ions called free radicals which react with DNA and other components killing microbes.used to sterilize plastics and other items killing microbes to preserve foods.