• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/114

Click to flip

114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the first test to perform when a woman presents with amenorrhea
B-HCG; the most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy
term for heavy bleeding during and between menstrual periods
menometrorrhagia
cause of amenorrhea with normal prolactin, no response to estrogen-progesterone challenge, and a history of D&C
Asherman's syndrome
therapy for PCOS
weight loss and OCPs
medication to induce ovulation
clomiphene citrate
diagnostic step required in a postmenopausal woman who presents with vaginal bleeding
endometrial biopsy
indications for medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy
stable, unruptured ectopic pregnancy of <3.5cm at <6 weeks gestation
medical options for endometriosis
OCPs, danazol, GnRH agonists
laparoscopic findings in endometriosis
"chocolate cysts", powder burns
the most common location for an ectopic pregnancy
ampulla of the oviduct
how to diagnose and follow a leiomyoma
ultrasound
natural history of a leiomyoma
regresses after menopause
a patient has increased vaginal discharge and petechial patches in the upper vagina and cervix
Trichomonas vaginitis
treatment for bacterial vaginosis
oral or topical metronidazole
the most common cause of bloody nipple discharge
intraductal papilloma
contraceptive methods that protect against PID
OCP and barrier contraception
unopposed estrogen is contraindicated in which cancers?
endometrial, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer
a patient presents with PID and RUQ pain
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
breast malignancy presenting as itching, burning, and erosion of the nipple
Paget's disease
annual screening for women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer
CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound
A 50 year old woman leaks urine when laughing or coughing. Non-surgical options?
Kegel exercises, estrogen, pessaries for stress incontinence
A 30 year old woman has unpredictable urine loss. Examination is normal. Medical options?
anticholinergics (oxybutynin) or B-adrenergics (metaproterenol) for urge incontinence
lab values suggestive of menopause
increased serum FSH
the most common cause of female infertility
endometriosis
Two consecutive findings of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Pap smear. Follow up evaluation?
colposcopy and endocervical curettage
breast cancer type that increases the future risk of invasive carcinoma in both breasts
lobular carcinoma in situ
medical management for ectopic includes what drug?
methotrexate for unruptured ectopics in asymptomatic woman <3cm in size
how do you diagnose vaginitis? (trichomonas, BV, yeast)
via wet prep and whiff test for Trichomonas or BV, KOH prep for yeast
what causes BF? what do you look for on slides?
overgrowth of Gardenella; look for clue cells
what should you suspect if you see many WBCs but no organisms on saline smear
chlamydia
what is the most common benign gynecological neoplasm?
leiomyoma (fibroids)
what HPV types increase risk for cervical cancer?
HPV types 16, 18, 31
what is the most common cause of death caused by ovarian tumors?
bowel obstruction
what types of masses are most suspicious for ovarian neoplasms?
adenexal or ovarian masses in pre-menarchal or post-menopausal women
what is Lynch II Syndrome?
HNPCC that is associated with an increased risk of colon/ovarian/endometrial/breast cancer
what hormone do you expect to be elevated with Turner's syndrome?
increased FSH due to negative feedback
Turner syndrome is associated with what cardiac problem
aortic coarctation
how do you diagnose endometriosis?
laparoscopy
what do you look for on laparoscopy with endometriosis?
blue/black (raspberry) or dark brown (powder-burned) appearances
how do you treat endometriosis?
treat via ovulation inhibition, i.e. GnRH analogs (nafarelin, leuprolide), danazol
most common cause of secondary amenorrhea
pregnancy
what is Asherman's syndrome?
secondary amenorrhea due to endometriosis, scarring after delivery or DNC
most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding
pregnancy
post-menopausal bleeding should be treated as what?
cancer until proven otherwise
what is the treatment for endometrial hyperplasia with atypical cells or carcinoma?
hysterectomy
what is hirsutism?
excessive sexual hair
what is virilization?
excessive androgenic influence
what is another name for Stein-Leventhal syndrome?
polycystic ovarian syndrome
most frequent cause of infertility
usually male pathology
what sign do you see on ultrasound with PCOS?
"pearl necklace"
most common location for ectopic pregnancy
ampulla of oviduct
amenorrhea + light vaginal bleeding + lower abdominal/pelvic pain = ??
ectopic pregnancy triad
most common cause of bloody vaginal discharge
intraductal papilloma
what types of pathology are at increased risk for breast cancer?
ductal epithelial hyperplasia or cellular atypia
most common breast lesion in women under 30
fibroadenoma
name the breast cancer stages
Stage I - tumor size <2cm
Stage II - tumor size 2-5cm
Stage III - axillary node positive
Stage IV - distant mets
what is an adenomyosis?
endometrial tissue in the myometrium that makes the uterus symmetrically enlarged and globular
what are the breast cancer markers?
CEA, CA-15-3, CA27-29
treatment for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors
tamoxifen
treatment for estrogen receptor-negative tumors
chemotherapy
most common cause of irregular menstrual cycles shortly after menarche
immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
amenorrhea in elite athletes is caused by what hormone deficiency?
estrogen deficiency
pain that radiates to the thighs and back just before menstruation is called what and what causes it?
primary dysmenorrhea; cause by spikes in prostaglandin levls
treatment for vaginismus
treat with Kegel exercises, relaxation techniques and insertion of objects of increasing size to dilate
what is the treatment of choice for non-surgical candidates with squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina?
radiation
treatment for vulvular lichen sclerosis
topical corticosteroids
can chlamydia be identified by gram stain?
no
development of secondary sex characteristics before what age constitutes precocious puberty?
before 8 in girls and before 9 in boys
PID + increased LFTs = ?
Fitz-Hughes-Curits syndrome
most common cause of fitz-hughes-curtis syndrome
chlamydia
treatment guidelines for PID:
cultured chlamydia
cultured gonorrhea
unknown
cultured chlamydia - doxycycline only

cultured gonorrhea - ceftriaxone + doxy

unknown - ceftriaxone + doxy
most common cause of dysfunctional uterine bleeding
overproduction of estradiol
treatment for dysfunctional uterine bleeding in patient >35
DNC to rule out endometrial cancer
Chapmans point for dysmenorrhea
thoracolumbar junction
viscersomatic location for dysmenorrhea
T9-L1
pain with intercourse + pelvic cramping just before menses + sleeping difficulities = ??
endometriosis
name the breast cancer screening guidelines
20-40 = breast exams q3 years
40+ = exam and mammogram yearly
thin, grayish-white vaginal discharge with fishy odor
BV
cause of BV
gardenella vaginalis
how do you diagnose Ashermans syndrome?
hysteroscopy
how does Ashermans affect LH/FSH?
it doesn't, normal ovarian tissue; therefore FSH/LH
gram-positive filamentous rods
Actinomyces
cause of isolated PID with an IUD in place
Actinomyces
treatment for Actinomyces
penicillin G
infection with sinus tracts containing sulfur granules
Actinomyces
next step in management of suspect vulvular cancer in post-menopausal women
biopsy via wide local excision
next step in management for patient <30 with non-suspicious breast mass; what is the most likely cause?
observe for at least one menstrual cycle; most likely fibroadenomatous
what do you do next with an abnormal pap smear?
colposcopy
what is the next step in management for a patient with an IUD that is pregnant?
pull string to remove IUD
prior to surgery, when should OCPs be stopped?
one month prior
next step in management with a pap that shows ASU-US
repeat q6 months for one year
what do you see with BV and how do you treat it?
+Whiff test, pH>4.5, Clue cells; treat with metronidazole; no partner treatment
what do you see with Trichomonas? treatment? partner?
strawberry cervix, malodorous frothy discharge, flagellated organisms on wet mount; treat patient and partner with metronidazole
young female with grape-like mass at vaginal introitus
sarcoma boyryoides
how do you confirm diagnosis of sarcoma boyryoides?
pelvic ultrasound
branching hyphae and spores on wet mount
candidiasis
what agar is most sensitive for identifying candida?
Sabourards agar
multinucleated epithelial cells diffusely covered in bacteria
BV
most effective method of post-coital contraception
insertion of copper IUD
chronic eczematous rash on nipple and adjacent aerolar skin
Pagets disease of breast
most common side effects of depo-provera use
in order: bleeding, HA, breast tenderness
next step in management of GBS+ pregnant patient
ampicillin during labor and 4 hours before delivery
what is the difference between a radical and modified-radical mastectomy?
both remove all of the breast tissue, pectoralis minor, ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes however a radical removes the pec major as well
work up for secondary amenorrhea protocol
beta-HCG --> TSH --> prolactin --> progesterone challenge --> estrogen-progesterone challenge --> if EP challenge is positive then order FSH and LH
motile, flagellated organisms on wet mount
trichomonas
treatment for trichomonas
treat patient and partner with metronidazole
long-term treatment for uterine prolapse
strengthening of pelvic floor muscles
what must you inquire about with anorexic patients?
suicidal ideations
most common cause of post-menopausal bleeidng
atrophic vaginitis
why do uterine fibroids regress after menopause?
they are estrogen dependent
what are the two biggest risk factors for breast cancer?
early menarche, nulliparity
what is the main risk associated with medical induction of ovulation?
risk of multiple ovulations
when should women begin self-breast exams and how often?
every month starting at age 20
what is the next step in management for a palpable breast mass in patients >35?
biopsy