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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most common breast lesion in women <30
most common location for breast CA
upper outer quadrant
risk factors for breast CA
high fat, low fiber diet; increased exposure to estrogen (nulliparity, early menarche, late menopause)
common cause of bloody nipple discharge
intraductal papilloma
tumor markers for recurrent breast CA
CEA, CA 15-3, CA 27-29
abnormal labs in metastatic breast CA
increased ESR, alk phos, calcium
all hormone-receptor + patients with breast cancer should receive what?
monoclonal antibody that binds to HER2/neu
contraindications to breast-conserving therapy
large size, subareolar, multifocal, fixed to chest wall, skin/nipple involvement
OCPs that lactating women can use
progestin-only minipill
GnRH analogs
nafarelin or leuprolie
how does danazol work?
suppresses mensturation by inhibiting midcycle FSH and LH surges
definition of primary amenorrhea
no menses by age 16; no sexual characteristics by age 14
intrauterine adhesions
asherman's syndrome
most common cause of secondary amenorrhea
primary amenorrhea with increased LH
testicular feminization
primary amenorrhea with increased FSH
ovarian failure, gonadal dysgenesis (turner's)
primary amenorrhea with decreased or normal FSH
steroidogenic enzyme defects, constitutional developmental delay
positive progestin challenge and hirsutism
postive progestin challenge and not hirsute
mild hypothalamic dysfunction
negative progestin challenge and FSH over 40
gonadal failure
negative progestin challenge and FSH under 40
severe hypothalamic dysfunction
bleeding between periods
endometrial thickness less than what indicates low likelihood of hyperplasia or endometrial CA
<4 mm
treatment for endometrial hyperplasia with atypical cells or carcinoma
hirsutism with increased androgens (testosterone >2, DHEAS >7)
r/o ovarian or adrenal neoplasm
hirsutism with increased serum testosterone
suspect ovarian tumor
hirsutism with increased DHEAS
suspect adrenal source
hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans
HAIR-AN syndrome
labs in PCOS
increased LH/FSH ratio (>2:1), increased testosterone, increased androstenedione, DHEAS, decreased glucose/insulin ratio
treatment for infertility associated with PCOS
most common location for ectopic pregnancy
ampulla of oviduct
amenorrhea, light vaginal bleeding, and lower abdominal pain
ectopic pregnancy
empty uterine cavity on US with B-hCG of 6500
MTX is effective for what ectopic pregnancies
small (<3 cm), unruptured
clue cells
grayish-white, fishy discharge
gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis
Rx for gardnerella
metronidazole or clinda X 7 days
profuse, malodorous, yellow-green frothy discharge
flagellated organisms on saline smear
rx for trichomonas
po flagyl
most common cause of death in end-stage cervical cancer
most common cause of death in ovarian cancer
bowel obstruction
increased CA-125 in premenopausal woman
may point to benign disease such as endometriosis
marker for epithelial cell ovarian CA
marker for endodermal sinus ovarian CA
marker for embryonal carcinoma
marker for choriocarcinoma
marker for dysgerminoma
gene related to ovarian CA
BRCA-1 (and 2, but less so)
strawberry cervix
normal ejaculate volume
>1 ml
normal sperm concentration
>20 million/ml
normal initial forward motility of sperm
normal amount of sperm with normal morphology
what do patients with fat necrosis have a history of?
trauma in area of mass
classic cause of ambiguous genitalia
congenital adrenal hyperplasia - most caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency
hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypotension, elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone
21-hydroxylase deficiency
candidal infection in girl may be presentation of what?
abnormal lab in chemo-induced ovarian failure?
increased FSH
what phase: profuse, clear, thin mucus
increased risk of what with PCOS
endometrial hyperplasia
DES exposure in vitro
clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina
treatment for motor urge incontinence
treatement for overflow incontinence
bethanecol/alpha blockers
friable cervix, yellow/green discharge
Rx for chlamydia
one dose azithroycin
if pt has chlamydia, do they need rx for gonorrhea?
if pt has gonorrhea, do they need rx for chlamydia?
treatment for precocious puberty
GnRH agonists
rx for PCOS and impaired glucose tolerance
what does raloxifine increase the risk of?
next step for CIN I/LGSIL
rx for hypertrophic dystrophy of vulva
corticosteroid cream
lab to check in pt with amenorrhea/hyperprolactinemia
TSH - want to r/o hypothyroidism as cause
indications for endometrial biopsy in DUB
>35, obese, diabetes, HTN
how does estrogen replacement therapy affect requirement for l-thyroxine?
increases it
indications for inpatient treatment of PID
t>39, N/V, ileus, adolescents, nulliparous, low SES,
kallman's syndrome
normal karyotype with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, eunuchoid stature, anosmia
tumor that causes precocious puberty
granulosa cell
what does mullerian inhibiting factor do?
secreted by gonads - suppresses development of uterus, tubes, vagina
treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis
NSAIDs, heat, rest
treatment for tubo-ovarian abscess
gent/clinda/amp, if not shrinking in 24-48 hours, then drain surgically
tests of ovulatory function
basal body temp and midluteal progesterone
what is pathognomonic for primary ovarian failure (e.g. in turner's)
increased FSH
risk factors for osteoporosis
thin, smoking, EtOH, steroids, menopause, malnutrition, family hx, asian/white
test in primary amenorrhea if no breast development
test in primary amenorrhea if breast development is decreased/increased
GnRH stimulation/karyotypin
suspected PMS, advise pt to do what
keep menstrual diary
rx for atrophic vaginitis
estrogen (plus progesterone if pt still has uterus)
46XX with normal secondary sex characteristics, amenorrhea, absent/rudimentary uterus
mayer-rokitansky-kuster-hauser syndrome
mullerian agenesis
mrkh syndrome
cause of amenorrhea in an athlete
estrogen deficiency
papule that turns into beefy red ulcer, inguinal lymphadenopathy
granuloma inguinale
rx for granuloma inguinale
donovan bodies on giemsa/wright's stain
granuloma inguinale
treatment for lichen sclerosis
superpotent topical steroids, clobetasol/halobetasol
malaise, HA, fever, papule that turns into painless ulcer
lymphogranuloma venereum
cause of lymphogranuloma venereum
chlamydia L1-3